Topic outline

    • Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

      Q37. When was the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party formed and by whom?

      Ans. The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded in 1898 by socialists who respected Marxs ideas.


      Q38. Mention the role of socialist revolutionary parties in Russian.
      What role was played by the socialist revolutionary party in 1900?

      Ans. This party struggled for peasants rights and demanded that land belonging to nobles be transferred to peasants.


      Q39. What were workers protesting on Bloody Sunday?

      Ans. They were protesting for reduction in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions.


      Q40. Who supported the Socialist Revolutionaries and pro-Tsarists in Russia?

      Ans. They were backed by French, American, British and Japanese troops  all those forces who were worried at the growth of socialism in Russia.


      Q41. What were Stalin's views about rich peasants and traders?

      Ans. He believed that rich peasants and traders in the countryside were holding stocks in the hope of higher prices.


      Q42. What kind of development took place as a result of new political trends in Europe?

      Ans. It was a time when new cities came up and new industrialised regions developed, railways expanded and the Industrial Revolution occurred.


      Q43. Which socialist parties were formed in Germany, Britain and France?

      Ans. Germany — The Social Democratic Party (SDP)

      Britain — Labour Party 

      France — Socialist Party


      Q44. To whom did the reds, green and whites refer to during the Civil War in Russia?
      Who were the ‘reds’, the 'greens' and 'whites' in the Civil War?

      Ans. Bolsheviks - the reds

      Socialist Revolutionaries – the greens

      Pro-Tsarists – the whites


      Q45. Why did the Tsar dismiss the first Duma within 75 days of its election?

      Ans. The Tsar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days of its election because he did not want any questioning of his authority or any reduction in his power.


      Q46. What were Lenin's April theses?
      What were the main demands of April theses?
      Discuss Lenin's April theses.
      What do you mean by Lenin April theses?
      Explain the main demands of April theses.
      What were the demands referred in Lenin's April theses?

      Ans. Lenin declared that the war be brought to a close, land be transferred to the peasants, and banks be nationalised. These three demands were Lenins April Theses.


      Q47. What were the factors that led to the setting up of industries in Russia by the end of the 19th century?

      Ans. The expansion of Russian railway network and increase in foreign investment in industry led to the setting up of industries in Russia by the end of the 19th century.


      Q48. What were the ideas of conservatives regarding social change in the 19th century?

      Ans. By the nineteenth century, they accepted that some change was inevitable but believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process.


      Q49. What were the varied responses in Europe about transformation of society?

      Ans. Responses varied from those who accepted that some change was necessary but wished for a gradual shift, to those who wanted to restructure society radically.


      Q50. How was the bad condition of women responsible for Russian revolution?

      Ans. Women made up 31 per cent of the factory labour force by 1914, but they were paid less than men. When they launched agitation, they were fired by the army.


      Q51. Between which two European alliances First World War broke out?

      Ans. In 1914, war broke out between two European alliances Germany, Austria and Turkey (the Central powers) and France, Britain and Russia (later Italy and Romania).