Ans. The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded in 1898 by socialists who respected Marx’s ideas.
Ans. This party struggled for peasants’ rights and demanded that land belonging to nobles be transferred to peasants.
Ans. They were protesting for reduction in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions.
Ans. They were backed by French, American, British and Japanese troops – all those forces who were worried at the growth of socialism in Russia.
Ans. He believed that rich peasants and traders in the countryside were holding stocks in the hope of higher prices.
Ans. It was a time when new cities came up and new industrialised regions developed, railways expanded and the Industrial Revolution occurred.
Ans. Germany — The Social Democratic Party (SDP)
Britain — Labour Party
France — Socialist Party
Ans. Bolsheviks - the reds
Socialist Revolutionaries – the greens
Pro-Tsarists – the whites
Ans. The Tsar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days of its election because he did not want any questioning of his authority or any reduction in his power.
Ans. Lenin declared that the war be brought to a close, land be transferred to the peasants, and banks be nationalised. These three demands were Lenin’s April Theses.
Ans. The expansion of Russian railway network and increase in foreign investment in industry led to the setting up of industries in Russia by the end of the 19th century.
Ans. By the nineteenth century, they accepted that some change was inevitable but believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process.
Ans. Responses varied from those who accepted that some change was necessary but wished for a gradual shift, to those who wanted to restructure society radically.
Ans. Women made up 31 per cent of the factory labour force by 1914, but they were paid less than men. When they launched agitation, they were fired by the army.
Ans. In 1914, war broke out between two European alliances –Germany, Austria and Turkey (the Central powers) and France, Britain and Russia (later Italy and Romania).
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