Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Q19. Why were the parliamentarians opposed to Tsar’s desire to dissolve the Duma?
Ans. Parliamentarians wishing to preserve elected government were opposed to the Tsar’s desire to dissolve the Duma.
Q20. Give one instance of high anti-German sentiments in Russia.
Ans. Anti-German sentiments can be seen in the renaming of St Petersburg a German name as Petrograd.
Q21. Who was responsible for achieving equal rights in Italy?
Ans. Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian nationalist was responsible for achieving equal rights in Italy.
Q22. Name the ship that protected the winter palace during the October revolution in 1917 in Russia?
Ans. Ship Aurora protected the winter palace during the October revolution in 1917 in Russia.
Q23. What was budeonovka?
Ans. Budeonovka was the Soviet hat created as part of a new uniform for the Russian army.
Q24. What was the Bolshevik party renamed after October revolution?
Ans. The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik).
Q25. What was Cheka?
Ans. Cheka was the secret police of Soviet state security. It was created to punish those who criticised the Bolsheviks.
Q26. What do you mean by nationalisation of banks and industries?
Ans. Most industry and banks were nationalised in November 1917. This meant that the government took over ownership and management.
Q27. Who was Robert Owen?
Ans. Robert Owen was a leading English manufacturer who sought to build a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana (USA).
Q28. Who made autocracy unpopular in Russia?
Ans. The Tsarina Alexandra’s German origins and poor advisers, especially a monk called Rasputin, made the autocracy unpopular.
Q29. Who were jadidists within the Russian empire?
Ans. The jadidists were the Muslim reformer within the Russian empire. They wanted modernised Islam to lead their societies.
Q30. What were Nationalists views about revolutions?
Ans. Nationalists talked of revolutions that would create ‘nations’ where all citizens would have equal rights.
Q31. What do you mean by Union of Unions?
Who formed the Union of Unions?
Ans. Lawyers, doctors, engineers and other middle-class workers established the Union of Unions and demanded a constituent assembly.
Q32. Which group was against any kind of political or social change earlier in 18th century?
Ans. Earlier, in the eighteenth century, conservatives had been generally opposed to the idea of change.
Q33. Who controlled economic and social power before the 18 century in France?
Ans. It was the aristocracy and church which controlled economic and social power before the 18 century in France.
Q34. Who wanted to put an immediate end to the existing government in Europe in 1815?
Ans. Some nationalists, liberals and radicals wanted revolutions to put an end to the kind of governments established in Europe in 1815.
Q35. What was the major occupation of Russian people at the beginning of 20th century?
Ans. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the vast majority of Russia’s people were agriculturists.
Q36. Name the two Indian nationalist who talked of the significance of the French revolution.
Ans. In India, Raja Rammohan Roy and Derozio talked of the significance of the French Revolution.