Ans. Parliamentarians wishing to preserve elected government were opposed to the Tsar’s desire to dissolve the Duma.
Ans. Anti-German sentiments can be seen in the renaming of St Petersburg a German name as Petrograd.
Ans. Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian nationalist was responsible for achieving equal rights in Italy.
Ans. Ship Aurora protected the winter palace during the October revolution in 1917 in Russia.
Ans. Budeonovka was the Soviet hat created as part of a new uniform for the Russian army.
Ans. The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik).
Ans. Cheka was the secret police of Soviet state security. It was created to punish those who criticised the Bolsheviks.
Ans. Most industry and banks were nationalised in November 1917. This meant that the government took over ownership and management.
Ans. Robert Owen was a leading English manufacturer who sought to build a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana (USA).
Ans. The Tsarina Alexandra’s German origins and poor advisers, especially a monk called Rasputin, made the autocracy unpopular.
Ans. The jadidists were the Muslim reformer within the Russian empire. They wanted modernised Islam to lead their societies.
Ans. Nationalists talked of revolutions that would create ‘nations’ where all citizens would have equal rights.
Ans. Lawyers, doctors, engineers and other middle-class workers established the Union of Unions and demanded a constituent assembly.
Ans. Earlier, in the eighteenth century, conservatives had been generally opposed to the idea of change.
Ans. It was the aristocracy and church which controlled economic and social power before the 18 century in France.
Ans. Some nationalists, liberals and radicals wanted revolutions to put an end to the kind of governments established in Europe in 1815.
Ans. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the vast majority of Russia’s people were agriculturists.
Ans. In India, Raja Rammohan Roy and Derozio talked of the significance of the French Revolution.
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