People as Resource
Q21. Even though primary schools have expanded largely in villages, mention the reasons for their diluted result?
Ans. This huge expansion of schools has been diluted by the poor quality of schooling and high dropout rates.
Q22. On what factors quality of population depends?
Ans. The quality of population depends upon the literacy rate, health of a person indicated by life expectancy and skill formation acquired by the people of the country.
Q23. How does society benefit from investment in humans?
Ans. Society also gains in other indirect ways because the advantages of a more educated or a healthier population spreads to those also who themselves were not directly educated or given health care.
Q24. Why do educated parents invest heavily in the education of their children?
Ans. Educated parents are found to invest more heavily on the education of their child. This is because they have realised the importance of education for themselves.
Q25. How illiterate parents create vicious cycle for their children?
Ans. A vicious cycle may be created by disadvantaged parents who, themselves uneducated and lacking in hygiene, keep their children in a similarly disadvantaged state.
Q26. What is the purpose of mid-day meal?
Why have mid-day scheme been launched by the government in the schools?
Ans. Mid-day meal scheme has been implemented to encourage attendance and retention of children and improve their nutritional status. These policies could add to the literate population of India.
Q27. What is the aim of national health policy of India?
Ans. Our national policy, too, aims at improving the accessibility of health care, family welfare and nutritional service with a special focus on the under-privileged segment of population.
Q28. What do you understand by human capital formation?
Ans. When the existing 'human resource' is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, we call it 'human capital formation' that adds to the productive power of the country just like 'physical capital formation'.
Q29. How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?
How is human capital superior to other resources?
Ans. In fact, human capital is in one way superior to other resources like land and physical capital: human resource can make use of land and capital. Land and capital cannot become useful on its own!
Q30. What is the positive side of a large population?
Ans. Looking at the population from productive aspect emphasises its ability to contribute to the creation of the Gross National Product. Like other resources population also is a resource — a 'human resource'. This is the positive side of a large population.
Q31. ‘Unemployment has detrimental impact on the overall growth of an economy.’ Explain.
Ans. Increase in unemployment is an indicator of a depressed economy. It also wastes the resource, which could have been gainfully employed. If people cannot be used as a resource they naturally appear as a liability to the economy.
Q32. Why are women employed in low paid work?
Ans. Education and skill are the major determinants of the earning of any individual in the market. A majority of women have meagre education and low skill formation. Hence, women are paid low compared to men. Most women work where job security is not there.
Q33. What part does health play in the individual’s working life?
Ans. Firm maximise profit. No firm would be induced to employ people who might not work efficiently as a healthy worker because of ill health. The health of a person helps him to realise his potential and the ability to fight illness. An unhealthy person becomes a liability for an organization.
Q34. What does the virtuous cycle created by the educated parent mean? Explain.
Ans. Educated parents are found to invest more heavily on the education of their child. This is because they have realised the importance of education for themselves. They are also conscious of proper nutrition and hygiene. They accordingly look after their children’s needs for education at school and good health. A virtuous cycle is thus created in this case.