i. Till the mid-1960s, the seeds used in cultivation were traditional ones with relatively low yields.
ii. Traditional seeds needed less irrigation. Farmers used cow-dung and other natural manure as fertilizers.
iii. All these were readily available with the farmers who did not have to buy them.
iv. The Green Revolution in the late 1960s introduced the Indian farmer to cultivation of wheat and rice using high yielding varieties (HYVs) of seeds.
v. Compared to the traditional seeds, the HYV seeds promised to produce much greater amounts of grain on a single plant.
vi. As a result, the same piece of land would now produce far larger quantities of food grains than was possible earlier.
vii. HYV seeds, however, needed plenty of water and also chemical fertilizers and pesticides to produce best results.
Ans. The aim of production is to produce the goods and services that we want.
There are four requirements for production of goods and services.
1. The first requirement is land, and other natural resources such as water, forests, minerals etc.
2. The second requirement is labour, i.e. people who will do the work. Some production activities require highly educated workers to perform the necessary tasks. Other activities require workers who can do manual work. Each worker is providing the labour necessary for production.
3. The third requirement is physical capital, i.e. the variety of inputs required at every stage during production.
It is of two types:
i. Fixed capital: Tools, machines, buildings
ii. Working capital: Raw materials and money in hand
4. There is a fourth requirement too. We will need knowledge and enterprise to be able to put together land, labour and physical capital and produce an output either to use ourself or to sell in the market. This these days is called human capital.
a. LOCATION: Bulandshahr district in Western Uttar Pradesh
b. TOTAL AREA OF THE VILLAGE: 226 hectares
c. LAND USE (in hectares):
Land not available for cultivation (Area covering dwellings, roads, ponds, grazing ground)
2 primary schools and 1 high school
1 primary health centre run by the government and 1 private dispensary
Raiganj and Shahpur
Most of the houses have electric connections. Electricity powers all the tube wells in the fields and is used in various types of small business.
Palampur is well-connected with neighbouring villages and towns. Raiganj, a big village, is 3 kms from Palampur. An all-weather road connects the village to Raiganj and further on to the nearest small town of Shahpur. Many kinds of transport are visible on this road starting from bullock carts, tongas, bogeys (wooden cart drawn by buffalos) loaded with jiggery (gur) and other commodities to motor vehicles like motorcycles, jeeps, tractors and trucks.
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