Ans. To promote more non-farm production activities in villages the following steps can be taken:
i. The government should start up such a scheme under which landless labourers and small farmers are able to get cheap loans to start up the non-farm production activities.
ii. Government should provide training to the villagers in different small crafts.
iii. The concerned authority should also work towards improving the infrastructure of village.
iv. Small industries can be set up in rural areas.
Ans. Following are the factors responsible for production:
(i) Land : It is a free gift of nature and it is neither created nor destroyed.
(ii) Labour : It is a factor which helps in production. There are three types of labour—skilled, semiskilled and unskilled.
(iii) Capital : It is a part which is invested. There are two types of capital namely physical and working capital.
(iv) Entrepreneurs : The person who is taking risk is known as entrepreneur. Without entrepreneur land, labour capitals are useless.
Ans. Difference between Fixed and Working Capital
1. Tools and machines range from very simple tools such as a farmers plough to sophisticated machines such as generators, turbines, computers etc. are fixed capital.
1. Raw materials and money in hand are called Working Capital e.g. clay, yarn etc.
2. Tools, machines and buildings can be used in production over many years.
2. It is used up in production.
i. In many areas, Green Revolution is associated with the loss of soil fertility due to increased use of chemical fertilizers.
ii. Also, continuous use of groundwater for tubewell irrigation has reduced the water-table below the ground.
iii. Environmental resources like soil fertility and groundwater are built up over many years.
iv. Once destroyed it is very difficult to restore them.
v. We must take care of the environment to ensure future development of agriculture.
Ans. A farmer with 1 hectare of land will be called a small farmer. Small farmers along with their families cultivate their own fields. Thus, they provide the labour required for farming themselves. Most small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital. They borrow from large farmers or the village moneylenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation. The rate of interest on such loans is very high. Small farmer uses simple tools for the cultivation and uses a pair of bullock cart to plough the field. After the harvest small farmer has little surplus because his total production is small and from this a substantial share is kept for his own family needs.
Ans. Palampur is a well-developed village because of the following reasons:
i. It has a well-developed system of irrigation. This helps the farmers to irrigate larger areas of land more effectively.
ii. Farmers of Palampur have adopted multiple cropping. They grow at least two main crops; many are growing potato as the third crop in the past fifteen to twenty years.
iii. They use modern method of farming. With the HYV seeds, the yield went up to 3200 kg per hectare.
iv. People of Palampur are engaged in small scale manufacturing. There are small general stores in the village selling wide range daily needs commodities.
v. Palampur has fairly well-developed system of roads, transport, electricity, irrigation, schools and health centre.
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