Ans. Before the access to electricity in Palampur, farmers used to draw water from wells through Persian wheels and irrigate the fields. They also used to be dependent on rainfall for irrigation over large areas. The irrigation system of the village became well developed when electricity reached to Palampur. Now farmers started using electric tubewell which is able to irrigate much larger areas of land more efficiently.
Ans. Savita got a loan at an interest rate of 24 per cent for four months. She also had to work on his field as a farm labourer during the harvest season at very low wage.
The case would have been different if Savita would have taken loan from the bank at a low rate of interest. She could have easily repaid the loan and her condition would have been far better.
Ans. Farmers with small land holdings use traditional methods of cultivation which impact the overall productivity. They have little surplus because their total production is small and from this a substantial share is kept for their own family needs.
Farmers with large holdings of land use modern methods of production and increase their overall productivity. Large and medium farmers sell the surplus farm products.
Ans. Modern farming methods include use of high yielding varieties (HYVs) seeds. HYV seeds, however, needed plenty of water and also chemical fertilizers and pesticides to produce best results. Higher yields are possible only from a combination of HYV seeds, irrigation facilities (electric tube wells), chemical fertilisers, pesticides etc. and all these elements are manufactured in industry. Thus, it is correct to say that farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry.
Ans. Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital. Unlike tools, machines and buildings, these are used up in production.
Working capital is required because:
i. Production requires a variety of raw materials such as the yarn used by the weaver and the clay used by the potter.
ii. Also, some money is always required during production to make payments and buy other necessary items.
Ans. The main constrains in raising farm production are:
i. Land area under cultivation is practically fixed.
ii. Since 1960 in Palampur, there has been no expansion in land area under cultivation.
iii. By then, some of the wastelands in the village had been converted to cultivable land.
iv. There exists no further scope to increase farm production by bringing new land under cultivation.
i. The main reason why farmers are able to grow three different crops in a year in Palampur is due to the well-developed system of irrigation.
ii. Electricity came early to Palampur. Its major impact was to transform the system of irrigation.
iii. Persian wheels were, till then, used by farmers to draw water from the wells and irrigate small fields. People saw that the electric-run tubewells could irrigate much larger areas of land more effectively.
iv. The first few tubewells were installed by the government.
Ans. Modern methods of farming are:
(i) Multiple cropping
(ii) Fertilizers and HYV seeds
(iv) Farm machinery.
(i) Chemical fertilizers may escape from the soil and pollute groundwater, rivers and lakes.
(ii) Chemical fertilizers can also kill bacteria and other microorganisms in the soil.
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