1. Small farmers along with their families cultivate their own fields. Thus they provide the labour required for farming.
2. Medium and large farmers hire farm labourers to work on their fields.
3. Farm labourers come either from landless families or families cultivating small plots of land.
Ans. In villages, there is huge competition for work among the labourers. They are ready to work even at low wages in the fields. This keeps their income at a low level. These labourers migrate to cities and towns in search of work. In cities, labourers are in great demand due to industries and construction work.
i. Manufacturing in Palampur involves very simple production methods and are done on a small scale.
ii. They are carried out mostly at home or in the fields with the help of family labour.
iii. Rarely are labourers hired.
Ans. Farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try out the modern farming method in India. The farmers in these regions set up tubewells for irrigation, and made use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides in farming. Some of them bought farm machinery like tractors and threshers, which made ploughing and harvesting faster.
Ans. Electricity came early to Palampur. Its major impact was to transform the system of irrigation. Persian wheels were, till then, used by farmers to draw water from the wells and irrigate small fields. But after the spread of electricity electric-run tubewells replaced the Persian wheels. The first few tubewells were installed by the government. Soon, however, farmers started setting up private tubewells.
Ans. Farming is the main production activity in Palampur.
i. 75 per cent of the people who are working are dependent on farming for their livelihood.
ii. They could be farmers or farm labourers.
iii. The wellbeing of these people is closely related to production on the farms.
Ans. At present, less than fifty people are engaged in manufacturing in Palampur. Unlike the manufacturing that takes place in the big factories in the towns and cities, manufacturing in Palampur involves very simple production methods and are done on a small scale. They are carried out mostly at home or in the fields with the help of family labour. Rarely are labourers hired.
Ans. Difference between physical capital and human capital
Physical capital implies the non-human assets of the company, such as plant and machinery, tools and equipment, office supplies etc. that help in the process of production.
Human capital refers to stock of knowledge, talent, skills and abilities brought in by the employee, to the organization.
Ans. Not all villages in India have high levels of irrigation. Apart from the riverine plains, coastal regions in our country are well-irrigated. In contrast, plateau regions such as the Deccan plateau have low levels of irrigation. Of the total cultivated area in the country a little less than 40 per cent is irrigated even today. In the remaining areas, farming is largely dependent on rainfall. Thus, it is important to increase the area under irrigation.
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