Ans. Ration shops also known as Fair Price Shops keep stock of food grains, sugar, and kerosene oil for cooking. These items are sold to people at a price lower than the market price.
Ans. Hunger is another aspect indicating food insecurity. Hunger is not just an expression of poverty, it brings about poverty. Hunger has chronic and seasonal dimensions.
Ans. Food security is ensured in a country only if (1) enough food is available for all the persons (2) all persons have the capacity to buy food of acceptable quality and (3) there is no barrier on access to food.
Ans. A Famine is characterised by wide spread deaths due to starvation and epidemics caused by forced use of contaminated water or decaying food and loss of body resistance due to weakening from starvation.
Ans. Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) was introduced to adopt the principle of targeting the ‘poor in all areas’. It was for the first time that a differential price policy was adopted for poor and non-poor.
Ans. The agricultural labourers, fishermen, transport workers and other casual labourers were affected the most by dramatically increasing price of rice. They were the ones who died in this famine.
Ans. The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in states where there is surplus production. The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their crops. This price is called Minimum Support Price.
Ans. The minimum support price (MSP) is an agricultural product price set by the government of India to purchase directly from the farmer. This rate is to safeguard the farmer to a minimum profit for the harvest.
Ans. Government distributes food grains from buffer stock in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price. This subsidized price is known as Issue Price.
Ans. The food procured by the FCI is distributed through government regulated ration shops among the poorer section of the society. This is called the public distribution system (PDS).
Ans. The worst affected groups are landless or land poor households in rural areas and people employed in ill paid occupations and casual labourers engaged in seasonal activities in the urban areas.
Ans. There are three kinds of ration cards:
(a) Antyodaya cards for the poorest of the poor;
(b) BPL cards for those below poverty line; and
(c) APL cards for all others.
Ans. The states of Uttar Pradesh (eastern and south-eastern parts), Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharasthra account for largest number of food insecure people in the country.
Ans. Seasonal hunger is related to cycles of food growing and harvesting. This is prevalent in rural areas because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities and in urban areas because of the casual labour, e.g., there is less work for casual construction labour during the rainy season.
Download to practice offline.