Ans. Article 17 of the Constitution abolishes untouchability.
Ans. Right to Freedom
Ans. Reservation Policy is the policy which reserve seats in education and government employment for Dalits and Adivasis.
Ans. Manual scavengers are known as Bhangis in Gujarat, Pakhis in Andhra Pradesh and the Sikkaliars in Tamil Nadu.
Ans. Article 15 of the Constitution notes that no citizen of India shall be discriminated against on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Ans. Marginal groups relied on Constitution to protect themselves from continued exploitation by other groups.
Ans. Two different provisions in the 1989 Act are:
i. to occupy land that was traditionally theirs
ii. no force displacement
Ans. Article 17 of the Constitution states that untouchability has been abolished – what this means is that no one can henceforth prevent Dalits from educating themselves, entering temples, using public facilities etc.
Ans. The term Dalit, which means ‘broken’ is used deliberately and actively by groups to highlight the centuries of discrimination they have experienced within the caste system.
Ans. They have attempted to overcome their situation by adopting a range of strategies in their long history such as religious solace, armed struggle, self-improvement and education, economic uplift.
Ans. They have drawn on these rights in two ways: first, by insisting on their
Fundamental Rights, they have forced the government to recognise the injustice done to them. Second, they have insisted that the government enforce these laws.
Ans. Two Fundamental Rights in the Constitution that Dalits can draw upon to insist that they be treated with dignity and as equals are:
i. Right to freedom
ii. Right to Equality
Ans. In 1993, the government passed the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act. This law prohibits the employment of manual scavengers as well as the construction of dry latrines.
Ans. The 1989 Act confirms what has already been promised to tribal people in the Constitution – that land belonging to tribal people cannot be sold to or bought by non-tribal people. In cases where this has happened, the Constitution guarantees the right of tribal people to re-possess their land.
Ans. Manual scavenging refers to the practice of removing human and animal waste/excreta using brooms, tin plates and baskets from dry latrines and carrying it on the head to disposal grounds some distance away.
Manual scavengers are exposed to subhuman conditions of work and face serious health hazards. They are constantly exposed to infections that affect their eyes, skin, respiratory and gastro-intestinal systems.
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