Q1. Which article of Indian constitution abolishes
Ans. Article 17 of the Constitution abolishes
Q2. 'The force is put on Ratham to perform the ritual of washing
the feet of the priest and then bathing in that water'. Which fundamental right
is being violated in the case?
Ans. Right to Freedom
Q3. What is the ‘Reservation
Ans. Reservation Policy is the policy which reserve
seats in education and government employment for Dalits and Adivasis.
Q4. By what names are the manual scavengers known in different
parts of our country?
scavengers are known as Bhangis in Gujarat, Pakhis in Andhra Pradesh and the Sikkaliars
in Tamil Nadu.
Q5. What is Article 15?
Ans. Article 15 of the Constitution notes that no
citizen of India shall be discriminated against on the basis of religion, race,
caste, sex or place of birth.
Q6. What did the marginal groups rely on to protect themselves
from continued exploitation by other groups?
Ans. Marginal groups relied on Constitution to protect
themselves from continued exploitation by other groups.
Q7. List two different provisions in the 1989 Act.
Ans. Two different provisions in the 1989 Act are:
to occupy land that was traditionally
no force displacement
Q8. What is Article 17 of Indian constitution?
Ans. Article 17 of the Constitution states that
untouchability has been abolished – what this means is that no one can henceforth
prevent Dalits from educating themselves, entering temples, using public
Q9. What do you understand by the term ‘Dalit’?
Ans. The term Dalit, which means ‘broken’ is used
deliberately and actively by groups to highlight the centuries of
discrimination they have experienced within the caste system.
Q10. What are the ways in which marginalized communities tried
to overcome the discriminations they faced?
Ans. They have attempted to overcome their situation
by adopting a range of strategies in their long history such as religious
solace, armed struggle, self-improvement and education, economic uplift.
Q11. How have the marginalised communities drawn on the
have drawn on these rights in two ways: first, by insisting on their
Rights, they have forced the government to recognise the injustice done to
them. Second, they have insisted that the government enforce these laws.
Q12. List two Fundamental Rights in the Constitution that Dalits
can draw upon to insist that they be treated with dignity and as equals.
Two Fundamental Rights in the Constitution that Dalits can draw upon to insist
that they be treated with dignity and as equals are:
Right to freedom
Right to Equality
Q13. What are the efforts made by government to eradicate manual
Ans. In 1993, the government passed the Employment of
Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act. This law
prohibits the employment of manual scavengers as well as the construction of
Q14. Describe the 1989 Act made in context to adivasi demands.
Ans. The 1989 Act confirms what has already been
promised to tribal people in the Constitution – that land belonging to tribal
people cannot be sold to or bought by non-tribal people. In cases where this
has happened, the Constitution guarantees the right of tribal people to
re-possess their land.
Q15. What is manual scavenging? How is it harmful for people who
scavenging refers to the practice of removing human and animal waste/excreta
using brooms, tin plates and baskets from dry latrines and carrying it on the
head to disposal grounds some distance away.
scavengers are exposed to subhuman conditions of work and face serious health
hazards. They are constantly exposed to infections that affect their eyes,
skin, respiratory and gastro-intestinal systems.