Trade to Territory
Q20. Who initiated the policy of paramountcy?
Ans. Lord Hastings (Governor- General from 1813 to
1823) initiated a new policy of “paramountcy”.
Q21. Why could Delhi no longer function as an effective centre?
Ans. As powerful regional kingdoms emerged in various
parts of India, Delhi could no longer function as an effective centre.
Q22. What led to intense conflict between British and local
Ans. Fortification of settlements and effort to carry on
profitable trade led to intense conflict between British and local rulers.
Q23. What constituted the Mughal army?
Ans. The Mughal army was mainly composed of cavalry
(sawars: trained soldiers on horseback) and infantry, that is, paidal (foot)
Q24. Name the two rulers under whose leadership Mysore became
Ans. Haidar Ali and his famous son Tipu Sultan were
the two rulers under whose leadership Mysore became powerful.
Q25. Why did Tipu Sultan develop a close relationship with the
French in India?
Ans. Tipu Sultan established a close relationship with
the French in India in order to modernized his army with their help.
Q26. Who were two famous Maratha soldiers and statesmen of the
late eighteenth century?
Mahadji Sindhia and Nana Phadnis were two famous Maratha soldiers and statesmen
of the late eighteenth century.
Q27. “After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the Company appointed
Residents in Indian states.” Who were the Residents?
They were political or commercial agents and their job was to serve and further
the interests of the Company.
Q28. When did the Mughal emperor appoint the Company as the Diwan
of the provinces of Bengal?
Ans. In 1765 the Mughal emperor appointed the Company
as the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal.
Q29. Why did the Company want a puppet ruler?
Why was the Company keen on puppet ruler?
Why did British want to establish puppet ruler in Bengal?
The Company was keen on a puppet ruler because he would willingly give trade
concessions and other privileges.
Q30. Explain the term ‘Mercantile’.
Ans. Mercantile means a business enterprise that makes
profit primarily through trade, buying goods cheap and selling them at higher
Q31. What do you mean by puppet?
Ans. Puppet literally means a toy that you can move
with strings. The term is used disapprovingly to refer to a person who is
controlled by someone else.
Q32. Name the Mughal emperor seen as the natural leader during
the revolt of 1857.
a massive rebellion against British rule broke out in 1857, Bahadur Shah Zafar,
the Mughal emperor at the time, was seen as the natural leader.
Q33. List the Kingdoms which were annexed on the basis of
‘Doctrine of Lapse’.
Ans. Kingdoms annexed on the basis of ‘Doctrine of
Lapse’ were: Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur (1852), Nagpur (1853) and
Q34. What were the grievances of the Company regarding the
Nawabs of Bengal?
Ans. The Company on its part declared that the unjust demands
of the local officials were ruining the trade of the Company, and trade could
flourish only if the duties were removed.
Q35. Who were called ‘nabobs’?
Ans. Company officials who managed to return Britain with
wealth led flashy lives and flaunted their riches. They were called “nabobs” –
an anglicised version of the Indian word nawab.
Q36. How Plassey got its name?
Ans. Plassey is an anglicised pronunciation of Palashi
and the place derived its name from the palash tree known for its beautiful red
flowers that yield gulal, the powder used in the festival of Holi.