Ans. Lord Hastings (Governor- General from 1813 to 1823) initiated a new policy of “paramountcy”.
Ans. As powerful regional kingdoms emerged in various parts of India, Delhi could no longer function as an effective centre.
Ans. Fortification of settlements and effort to carry on profitable trade led to intense conflict between British and local rulers.
Ans. The Mughal army was mainly composed of cavalry (sawars: trained soldiers on horseback) and infantry, that is, paidal (foot) soldiers.
Ans. Haidar Ali and his famous son Tipu Sultan were the two rulers under whose leadership Mysore became powerful.
Ans. Tipu Sultan established a close relationship with the French in India in order to modernized his army with their help.
Ans. Mahadji Sindhia and Nana Phadnis were two famous Maratha soldiers and statesmen of the late eighteenth century.
Ans. They were political or commercial agents and their job was to serve and further the interests of the Company.
Ans. In 1765 the Mughal emperor appointed the Company as the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal.
Ans. The Company was keen on a puppet ruler because he would willingly give trade concessions and other privileges.
Ans. Mercantile means a business enterprise that makes profit primarily through trade, buying goods cheap and selling them at higher prices.
Ans. Puppet literally means a toy that you can move with strings. The term is used disapprovingly to refer to a person who is controlled by someone else.
Ans. When a massive rebellion against British rule broke out in 1857, Bahadur Shah Zafar, the Mughal emperor at the time, was seen as the natural leader.
Ans. Kingdoms annexed on the basis of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ were: Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur (1852), Nagpur (1853) and Jhansi (1854).
Ans. The Company on its part declared that the unjust demands of the local officials were ruining the trade of the Company, and trade could flourish only if the duties were removed.
Ans. Company officials who managed to return Britain with wealth led flashy lives and flaunted their riches. They were called “nabobs” – an anglicised version of the Indian word nawab.
Ans. Plassey is an anglicised pronunciation of Palashi and the place derived its name from the palash tree known for its beautiful red flowers that yield gulal, the powder used in the festival of Holi.
Download to practice offline.