Topic outline

    • The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947

      Q20. Who was the first Indian woman to become President of the Indian National Congress?

      Ans. Sarojini Naidu was the first Indian woman to become President of the Indian National Congress (1925).


      Q21. Who was the first Governor General of free India?

      Ans. C. Rajagopalachari, popularly known as Rajaji, was first Governor-General of free India.


      Q22. Why did Rabindranath give up the title of knighthood?
      Why did Rabindranath Tagore renounce his knighthood?

      Ans.  Rabindranath Tagore had renounced the British knighthood in protest against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919.

      Q23. Who was A.O Hume? What role did he play in the history of India?
      Who was AO Hume? What was his contribution in the Indian national movement?

      Ans. A.O Hume was a retired British official. He played a part in bringing Indians from the various regions together.


      Q24. What is the literal meaning of Sarvajanik?

      Ans.  The literal meaning of “sarvajanik” is “of or for all the people” (sarva = all + janik = of the people).


      Q25. When was Indian National Congress established?

      Ans. The Indian National Congress was established when 72 delegates from all over the country met at Bombay in December 1885.


      Q26. Why did Mahatma Gandhi along with other Indians establish the Natal Congress in South Africa?
      Who established the Natal Congress and why?
      When was Natal Congress established?

      Ans.  In 1895, along with other Indians, Mahatma Gandhi established the Natal Congress to fight against racial discrimination.

      Q27. Who wrote the book Poverty and Un-British rule in India? What was it about?

      Ans. Dadabhai Naoroji wrote the book Poverty and Un-British Rule in India. It offered a scathing criticism of the economic impact of British rule.


      Q28. What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?

      Ans. The Muslim League resolution of 1940 asked for “Independent States” for Muslims in the north-western and eastern areas of the country.


      Q29. Write a short note on Lala Lajpat Rai.

      Ans.  Lala Lajpat Rai was a nationalist from Punjab. He was one of the leading members of the Radical group which was critical of the politics of petitions. He was also an active member of the Arya Samaj.


      Q30. Write a brief note on government of India Act 1935.

      Ans. Government of India Act of 1935 prescribed provincial autonomy and the government announced elections to the provincial legislatures in 1937. The Congress formed governments in 7 out of 11 provinces.


      Q31. On what term were the congress leaders ready to support the British war effort at the time of Second World War? Did British accept their demand?

      Ans.  Congress leaders were ready to support the British war effort. But in return they wanted that India be granted independence after the war. The British refused to concede the demand.

      Q32. Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?

      Ans.  Indian National Congress is composed of the representatives, not of any one class or community of India, but of all the different communities of India. Thus, Indian National Congress wished to speak for all the people of country.


      Q33. Why did the Muslim League announce 16 August 1946 as ' Direct Action Day'?
      Why did the Muslim League decide to observe the ‘Direct Action Day’ on August 1946?

      Ans. After the failure of the Cabinet Mission, the Muslim League decided on mass agitation for winning its Pakistan demand. It announced 16 August 1946 as “Direct Action Day”.


      Q34. Why did Mahatma Gandhi break the salt law?

      Ans.  Mahatma Gandhi broke the salt law because according to this law, the state had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt. Mahatma Gandhi along with other nationalists reasoned that it was sinful to tax salt since it is such an essential item of our food.