Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
Q29. Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest
against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century?
Textile industries had just begun to develop in England in
the early eighteenth century. Unable to compete with Indian textiles, English producers
wanted a secure market within the country by preventing the entry of Indian textiles.
Therefore, they protested against the import of Indian textiles.
Q30. What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the
early years of its development?
Ans. The textile factory industry in India faced many
problems. It found it difficult to compete with the cheap textiles imported from
Britain. In most countries, governments supported industrialisation by imposing
heavy duties on imports. This eliminated competition and protected infant industries.
The colonial government in India usually refused such protection to local
Q31. Write a short note on growth of cotton mills in India.
Give a brief description of growth of cotton mills in India.
Ans. The first cotton mill in India was set up as a
spinning mill in Bombay in 1854. By 1900, over 84 mills started operating in
came up in other cities too. The first mill in Ahmedabad was started in 1861. A
year later a mill was established in Kanpur, in the United Provinces. Growth
of cotton mills led to a demand for labour. Thousands of poor peasants,
artisans and agricultural labourers moved to the cities to work in the mills.
Q32. Why was the Wootz steel making process completely lost by
the mid-19th century?
Wootz steel making process was completely lost by the mid-19th
century. Give reasons.
Wootz steel making process was completely lost by the
mid-nineteenth century. Why this was so?
Ans. Wootz steel making process was completely lost by
the mid-nineteenth century because of the following reasons.
The swords and armour making industry died
with the conquest of India by the British.
Imports of iron and steel from England
displaced the iron and steel produced by craftspeople in India.
Q33. How did the invention of spinning jenny and steam engine
revolutionised cotton textiles moving in England?
Ans. Competition with Indian textiles led to a search for
technological innovation in England. In 1764, the spinning jenny was invented
by John Kaye which increased the productivity of the traditional spindles. The
invention of the steam engine by Richard Arkwright in 1786 revolutionised
cotton textile weaving. Cloth could now be woven in immense quantities and
Q34. What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First
Ans. By the time TISCO was set up the situation was changing.
In 1914 the First World War broke out. Steel produced in Britain now had to
meet the demands of war in Europe. So imports of British steel into India
declined dramatically and the Indian Railways turned to TISCO for supply of
rails. As the war dragged on for several years, TISCO had to produce shells and
carriage wheels for the war. By 1919 the colonial government was buying 90 per
cent of the steel manufactured by TISCO. Over time TISCO became the biggest
steel industry within the British empire.
Q35. Describe the process of weaving.
Ans. Process of weaving
The first stage of production was spinning
– a work done mostly by women. The charkha and the takli were household
spinning instruments. The thread was spun on the charkha and rolled on the
When the spinning was over the thread was
woven into cloth by the weaver. In most communities weaving was a task done by
coloured textiles, the thread was dyed by the dyer, known as rangrez. For printed
cloth the weavers needed the help of specialist block printers known as
Q36. Describe the regions where textile production was
concentrated in the early 19th century.
Ans. Textile production was concentrated in four
regions in the early nineteenth century.
Bengal was one of the most important
centres. Located along the numerous rivers in the delta, the production centres
in Bengal could easily transport goods to distant places.
Decca in Eastern Bengal (now Bangladesh)
was the foremost textile centre in the eighteenth century. It was famous for
its mulmul and jamdani weaving.
Cluster of cotton weaving centres was
concentrated along the Coromandel Coast stretching from Madras to northern
On the western coast there were important
weaving centres in Gujarat.