Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age
Q19. Why were some forests classified as reserved forests by the
Some forests were classified as reserved forests for they produced timber which
the British wanted.
Q20. Who were the outsiders being referred to as dikus?
Ans. Missionaries, moneylenders, Hindu landlords, and
the British government were the outsiders being referred to as
Q21. Why was Birsa convicted?
Ans. British arrested Birsa in 1895, convicted him on
charges of rioting and jailed him for two years.
Q22. Why did forest Department establish forest villages in many
Ans. Forest Department established forest villages in
many regions to ensure a regular supply of cheap labour.
Q23. What did people say about Birsa Munda?
Ans. People said he had miraculous powers – he could
cure all diseases and multiply grain.
Q24. Which tribal groups moved with their herds of cattle or
sheep according to the seasons?
Ans. They were pastoralists who moved with their herds
of cattle or sheep according to the seasons.
Q25. Name the revolts that took place against the colonial
Ans. The revolt of Songram Sangma in 1906 in Assam,
and the forest satyagraha of the 1930s in the Central Provinces.
Q26. Who was Birsa Munda?
was born in the mid-1870s. The son of a poor father, he grew up around the
forests of Bohonda, grazing sheep, playing the flute, and dancing in the local
Q27. Why British allowed Jhum cultivation in the reserved
Ans. British allow
them to cultivate land on the condition that those who lived in the villages
would have to provide labour to the Forest Department and look after the
Q28. Which tribal group was reluctant to work for others and why?
Baigas of central India – were reluctant to do work for others. The Baigas saw themselves
as people of the forest, who could only live on the produce of the forest. It
was below the dignity of a Baiga to become a labourer.
Q29. What problems did Birsa set out to resolve?
Ans. Problems Birsa set out to resolve were:
Their familiar ways of life seemed to be
Their livelihoods were under threat.
Their religion appeared to be in danger.
Q30. Why did the British want tribal groups to settle down and
become peasant cultivators?
Ans. British wanted tribal groups to settle down and
become peasant cultivators because settled peasants were easier to control and
administer than people who were always on the move.
Q31. State the five tribes found in India. Write the name of the
Indian state where maximum tribes are found.
Ans. The Van Gujjars of the Punjab hills, the Labadis
of Andhra Pradesh, the Gaddis of Kulu, the Bakarwals of Kashmir and Santhals of
Hazaribagh, in present-day Jharkhand.
Q32. How did British officials see settled tribal groups and
those who lived in the forest?
Ans. British officials saw settled tribal groups like
the Gonds and Santhals as more civilised than hunter gatherers or shifting
cultivators. Those who lived in the forests were considered to be
wild and savage: they needed to be settled and civilised.
Q33. What accounts for the anger of the tribals against the
Ans. The following facts account for their anger
against the dilkus.
The land policies of the British were
destroying their traditional land system.
Hindu landlords and moneylenders were
taking over their land.
Missionaries were criticising their