Ans. Fungi on a bread piece grow from spores which are present in the air. When spores are released they keep floating in the air. As they are very light they can cover long distances. Spores are asexual reproductive bodies. Each spore is covered by a hard protective coat to withstand unfavourable conditions such as high temperature and low humidity. So they can survive for a long time. Under favourable conditions, a spore germinates and develops into a new individual.
Image From NCERT
Ans. Different methods of asexual reproduction
Vegetative propagation - It is a type of asexual reproduction in which new plants are produced from roots, stems, leaves and buds. Example - Bryophyllum (sprout leaf plant) has buds in the margins of leaves. If a leaf of this plant falls on a moist soil, each bud can give rise to a new plant.
Fragmentation – It is a form of asexual reproduction in which an organism is split into fragments. Each of these fragments develop into matured, fully grown individuals that are clones of the original organism. Example – When water and nutrients are available algae grow and multiply rapidly by fragmentation.
Spore Formation – The spores are asexual reproductive bodies. In spore formation parent plant produces tiny spores which can then produce new plants. Example - Plants such as moss and ferns also reproduce by means of spores.
Budding - Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site. The small bulb like projection coming out from the yeast cell is called a bud. Example - Most yeasts reproduce asexually by an asymmetric division process called budding.
Download to practice offline.