Ans. Tang dynasty remained in power for about 300 years (from the seventh to the tenth centuries)
Ans. Periyapuranam is a twelfth century Tamil work, which informs us about the lives of ordinary men and women.
Ans. They were expected to bring gifts for their kings or overlords, be present at their courts and provide them with military support.
Ans. Kings often rewarded Brahmanas by grants of land. These were recorded on copper plates, which were given to those who received the land.
Ans. Rulers belonging to the Gurjara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties were the parties involved in the tripartite struggle.
Ans. Prashatis were inscriptions that were written in praise of someone or something. Usually, they were composed in praise of the rulers.
Ans. Dantidurga was a Rashtrakuta chief who overthrew his Chalukya overlord and performed a ritual called hiranya-garbha.
Ans. A variety of methods were used for irrigation. In some areas wells were dug. In other places huge tanks were constructed to collect rainwater.
Ans. By the seventh century there were big landlords or warrior chiefs in different regions of the subcontinent. Existing kings often acknowledged them as their subordinates or samantas.
Ans. The big temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram, built by Rajaraja and Rajendra, are famous for its architectural and sculptural marvels.
Ans. The best-known Chahamana ruler was Prithviraja III (1168-1192), who defeated an Afghan ruler named Sultan Muhammad Ghori in 1191, but lost to him the very next year, in 1192.
Ans. Rulers belonging to the Gurjara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties fought for control over Kanauj. Because there were three “parties” in this longdrawn conflict, historians often describe it as the “tripartite struggle”.
Ans. Vijayalaya belonged to the ancient chiefly family of the Cholas from Uraiyur. He captured the delta from the Muttaraiyar in the middle of the ninth century. He built the town of Thanjavur and a temple for goddess Nishumbhasudini there.
Ans. The Chola kings gave some rich landowners titles like muvendavelan (a velan or peasant serving three kings), araiyar (chief), etc. as markers of respect, and entrusted them with important offices of the state at the centre.
Ans. In each of states, resources were obtained from the producers, that is, peasants, cattle-keepers, artisans, who were often persuaded or compelled to surrender part of what they produced. Sometimes these were claimed as “rent” due to a lord who asserted that he owned the land.
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