Q31. Highlight the steps taken by Murshid Quli Khan to decrease
Mughal influence in Bengal.
How did Murshid Quli Khan decrease the Mughal influence in Bengal?
In an effort to reduce Mughal influence in Bengal he transferred all Mughal jagirdars
to Orissa and ordered a major reassessment of the revenues of Bengal. Revenue
was collected in cash with great strictness from all zamindars. As a result,
many zamindars had to borrow money from bankers and moneylenders. Those unable
to pay were forced to sell their lands to larger zamindars.
Q32. How did Burhan-ul-Mulk reduce Mughal influence in the Awadh
Enumerate the steps taken by Saadat Khan to reduce Mughal
influence in Awadh.
How did Saadat Khan try to decrease the Mughal influence in the
Burhan-ul-Mulk tried to decrease Mughal influence in the Awadh region by reducing
the number of office holders (jagirdars) appointed by the Mughals. He also
reduced the size of jagirs, and appointed his own loyal servants to vacant
positions. The accounts of jagirdars were checked to prevent cheating and the
revenues of all districts were reassessed by officials appointed by the Nawab’s
Q33. Who were the very powerful governors of Awadh, Bengal and
Hyderabad among the early and later Mughal rulers?
three states were founded by members of the high Mughal nobility who had been governors
of large provinces – Sa‘adat Khan (Awadh), Murshid Quli Khan (Bengal) and Asaf
Jah (Hyderabad). All three had occupied high mansabdari positions and enjoyed
the trust and confidence of the emperors. Both Asaf Jah and Murshid Quli Khan
held a zat rank of 7,000 each, while Sa’adat Khan’s zat was 6,000.
Q34. How did Murshid Quli Khan become powerful in Bengal?
Bengal gradually broke away from Mughal control under Murshid Quli Khan who was
appointed as the naib, deputy to the governor of the province. Although never a
formal subadar, Murshid Quli Khan very quickly seized all the power that went
with that office. In an effort to reduce Mughal influence in Bengal he transferred
all Mughal jagirdars to Orissa and ordered a major reassessment of the revenues
of Bengal. Revenue was collected in cash with great strictness from all
Q35. Who were the Jats? How did they consolidate their power
during the late 17th and 18th centuries?
Jats were prosperous agriculturists. They consolidated their power during the
late seventeenth and eighteenth-centuries. Under their leader, Churaman, they
acquired control over territories situated to the west of the city of Delhi, and
by the 1680s they had begun dominating the region between the two imperial
cities of Delhi and Agra. Towns like Panipat and Ballabhgarh
became important trading centres in the areas dominated by them. Under
Suraj Mal the kingdom of Bharatpur emerged as a strong state.
Q36. How were the Sikhs organised
in the eighteenth century?
a number of able leaders in the eighteenth century, the Sikhs organized
themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later on misls. Their combined
forces were known as the grand army (dal khalsa). The entire body used to meet
at Amritsar at the time of Baisakhi and Diwali to take collective decisions known
as “resolutions of the Guru (gurmatas)”. A system called rakhi was introduced, offering
protection to cultivators on the payment of a tax of 20 per cent of the
Q37. Why did the Mughals lose their power by the eighteenth
How did the later Mughal emperors lose their control over their
Under later Mughal emperors, the efficiency of the imperial administration broke
down. It became increasingly difficult for the later Mughal emperors to keep a
check on their powerful mansabdars. Nobles appointed as governors
(subadars) often controlled the offices of revenue and military administration
(diwani and faujdari) as well. This gave them extraordinary political, economic
and military powers over vast regions of the Mughal Empire. As the governors consolidated
their control over the provinces, the periodic remission of revenue to the
Q38. How did moneylenders and bankers achieve influential
position in the state of Awadh?
The state depended on local bankers and mahajans for loans. It sold the right
to collect tax to the highest bidders. These “revenue farmers” (ijaradars)
agreed to pay the state a fixed sum of money. Local bankers guaranteed the payment
of this contracted amount to the state. In turn, the revenue-farmers were given
considerable freedom in the assessment and collection of taxes. These
developments allowed new social groups, like moneylenders and bankers, to
influence the management of the state’s revenue system, something
which had not occurred in the past.