Making of Regional Cultures
Q18. What was name of the text that was illustrated in the
miniature paintings of Himachal Pradesh?
The text that was illustrated in the miniature paintings of Himachal Pradesh
was Bhanudatta’s Rasamanjari.
Q19. What is called rasa lila?
The legends of Radha-Krishna were enacted in folk plays called rasa lila, which
combined folk dance with the basic gestures of the kathak story-tellers.
Q20. How did regional cultures evolve?
Regional cultures today are often the product of complex processes of
intermixing of local traditions with ideas from other parts of the
Q21. What is Manipravalam? Name a book written in that language.
Manipravalam was a literally style referring to the two languages, Sanskrit and
the regional language. The Lilatilakam, dealing with grammar and
poetics, was composed in Manipravalam.
Q22. Why did conquerors try to control the temple of Jagannatha
As the temple gained in importance as a centre of pilgrimage, its authority in
social and political matters also increased. Thus, all those who conquered Orissa
attempted to gain control over the temple. They felt that this would make their
rule acceptable to the local people.
Q23. How did the Cheras draw upon Sanskritic traditions?
the same time, the Cheras also drew upon Sanskritic traditions. The temple
theatre of Kerala, which is traced to this period, borrowed stories from the
Sanskrit epics. The first literary works in Malayalam, dated to about the
twelfth century, are directly indebted to Sanskrit.
Q24. Why do we know much more about the cultural practices of
rulers than about those of ordinary people?
Ordinary women and men painted as well – on
pots, walls, floors, cloth – works of art that have occasionally survived,
unlike the miniatures that were carefully preserved in palaces for centuries.
Thus, we know much more about the cultural practices of rulers than about those
of ordinary people.
Q25. How did Kathak reach its present form?
Under the Mughal emperors and their nobles, Kathak was performed in the court,
where it acquired its present features and developed into a form of dance with
a distinctive style. Subsequently, it developed in two traditions or gharanas:
one in the courts of Rajasthan (Jaipur) and the other in Lucknow.
Q26. How are women depicted in the stories about Rajput heroes?
Sometimes, they figure as the “cause” for conflicts, as men fought with one
another to either “win” or “protect” women. Women are also depicted as
following their heroic husbands in both life and death – there are stories
about the practice of sati or the immolation of widows on the funeral pyre of
Q27. Why were the Bengal Brahmanas allowed to eat fish?
Brahmanas were not allowed to eat nonvegetarian food, but the popularity of
fish in the local diet made the Brahmanical authorities relax this prohibition
for the Bengal Brahmanas. The Brihaddharma Purana, a thirteenth-century
Sanskrit text from Bengal, permitted the local Brahmanas to eat certain
varieties of fish.
Q28. Write a short note on Kangra School of painting.
Nadir Shah’s invasion and the conquest of Delhi in 1739 resulted in the migration
of Mughal artists to the hills to escape the uncertainties of the plains. Here they
found ready patrons which led to the founding of the Kangra School of painting.
By the mid eighteenth century the Kangra artists developed a style which
breathed a new spirit into miniature painting.
Q29. Why did minstrels proclaim the achievements of heroes?
about Rajput heroes were recorded in poems and songs, which were recited by
specially trained minstrels. These preserved the memories of heroes and were
expected to inspire others to follow their example. Ordinary people were also
attracted by these stories – which often depicted dramatic situations, and a
range of strong emotions – loyalty, friendship, love, valour, anger, etc.