Ans. The Ahom state depended upon forced labour. Those forced to work for the state were called paiks.
Ans. Raja Man Singh was Akbar’s famous general who attacked and defeated the Cheros in 1591.
Ans. Castes of entertainers earn their livelihood by performing in different towns and villages.
Ans. When the Mughals defeated the Gonds, they captured a huge booty of precious coins and elephants.
Ans. Garha Katanga was a rich state. It earned much wealth by trapping and exporting wild elephants to other kingdoms.
Ans. Durgawati was the daughter of Salbahan, the Chandel Rajput raja of Mahoba. She got married to Dalpat, the son of Gond raja Aman Das.
Ans. Nomads are wandering people. Many of them are pastoralists who roam from one pasture to another with their flocks and herds.
Ans. In Punjab, the Khokhar tribe was very influential during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
Ans. Itinerant groups, such as craftspersons, pedlars and entertainers travel from place to place practising their different occupations.
Ans. Nomadic pastoralists exchanged wool, ghee, etc., with settled agriculturists for grain, cloth, utensils and other products.
Ans. A clan is a group of families or households claiming descent from a common ancestor. Tribal organisation is often based on kinship or clan loyalties.
Ans. Trees and bushes in a forest area are first cut and burnt. The crop is sown in the ashes. When this land loses its fertility, another plot of land is cleared and planted in the same way.
Ans. Almost all adult males served in the army during war. At other times, they were engaged in building dams, irrigation systems and other public works. The Ahoms also introduced new methods of rice cultivation.
Ans. The Gonds lived in a vast forested region called Gondwana – or “country inhabited by Gonds”. They practised shifting cultivation. The Gonds were found in great numbers across the present-day states of Chhattisgarh,
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
Ans. The administrative system of these kingdoms was becoming centralised. The kingdom was divided into garhs. Each garh was controlled by a particular Gond clan. This was further divided into units of 84 villages called chaurasi. The chaurasi was subdivided into barhots which were made up of 12 villages each.
Ans. Ahom society was divided into clans or khels. There were very few castes of artisans, so artisans in the Ahom areas came from the adjoining kingdoms. A khel often controlled several villages. The peasant was given land by his village community. Even the king could not take it away without the community’s consent.
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