Changes through A thousand Years
Q27. What do you know about chronicles?
A chronicle is a record of the rule of the kings and life at the court. Most
kings had court chroniclers who wrote in detail about what happened during
their reign. Some important chronicles of the medieval period are:
Rajatarangini by Kalhana, which is a
history of the king of Kashmir.
Tarikh-i-Firoz Shahi by Zia-ud-din Barani,
which describes the history of the Sultans of Delhi till the reign of Firoz
Tarikh-e-Ferishta by Ferishta, which is a
record of the history of the Delhi Sultans, from the time of Turks till the
Q28. Our information about the medieval period is much more than
the ancient period. Give reason.
number and variety of textual records increased dramatically during this period.
They slowly displaced other types of available information. Through this period
paper gradually became cheaper and more widely available. People
used it to write holy texts, chronicles of rulers, letters and teachings of
saints, petitions and judicial records, and for registers of accounts and taxes.
Manuscripts were collected by wealthy people, rulers, monasteries and temples.
They were placed in libraries and archives.
Q29. What are the archaeological sources of the medieval period?
sources of the medieval period are:
Inscriptions –Writings or drawings found on
stones, pillars, clay or copper tablets and walls of caves, temples and
Archaeological remains and Monuments -
Ancient ruins, remains and monuments recovered as a result of excavation and
Coins - Ancient coins were mostly made of
gold, silver, copper or lead. Some of the coins contain religious and legendary
symbols which throw light on the culture of that time. Coins also contain the
figures of kings and gods.
Q30. What are the difficulties historians face in using
The difficulties historians face in using manuscripts:
There was no printing press in those days
so scribes copied manuscripts by hand which was sometime difficult to read and
As scribes copied manuscripts, they also
introduced small changes – a word here, a sentence there. These small
differences grew over centuries of copying.
Original manuscript of the author is rarely
found today. So, they have to depend upon the copies made by later scribes. As
a result historians have to read different manuscript versions of the same text
to guess what the author had originally written.
Q31. What were some of the major religious developments during
of the major religious developments during this period were:
It was during this period that important
changes occurred in Hinduism. These included the worship of new deities, the
construction of temples by royalty and the growing importance of Brahmanas, the
priests, as dominant groups in society.
There was emergence of the idea of bhakti
among the people.
This was also the period when new religions
appeared in the subcontinent. Merchants and migrants first brought the
teachings of the holy Quran to India in the seventh century.
Many rulers were patrons of Islam and the
ulama – learned theologians and jurists.
Q32.Why are coins and inscriptions important for the study of
are important for study as –
It tells us about the reigning periods of
kings and gives us dates of important political events.
It tells us about the economy of the
kingdom and trade with other regions.
are useful source of history because –
They record royal proclamations, religious
instruction and gifts given by rulers to temples and villages.
It tells us about the important events in
the king’s life, about the people of particular time and even narrates the
achievement of king.