Topic outline

    • Rulers and Buildings

      Q20. Which style was used in the construction between the eighth and thirteenth centuries?

      Ans. Between the eighth and thirteenth centuries the trabeate style was used in the construction of temples, mosques, tombs and in buildings attached to large stepped-wells (baolis).


      Q21. Why were temples destroyed?

      Ans. Temples were destroyed because kings built temples to demonstrate their devotion to God and their power and wealth. It is not surprising that when they attacked one another’s kingdoms they often targeted these buildings.


      Q22. Who built Qutb Minar?

      Ans. The first floor was constructed by Qutbuddin Aybak and the rest by Iltutmish around 1229. Over the years it was damaged by lightning and earthquakes and repaired by Alauddin Khalji, Muhammad Tughluq, Firuz Shah Tughluq and Ibrahim Lodi.

      Q23. What types of architects found between seventh and tenth centuries?

      Ans. Between the seventh and tenth centuries architects started adding more rooms, doors and windows to buildings. Roofs, doors and windows were still made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns, a style of architecture called “trabeate” or “corbelled”.


      Q24. How is the “trabeate” principle of architecture different from the “arcuate”?

      Ans.  In “trabeate” principle of architecture roofs, doors and windows were made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns.

      In “arcuate” principle of architecture the weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was sometimes carried by arches.


      Q25. Write a short note on architecture of Taj Mahal.

      Ans. Shah Jahan adapted the river-front garden in the layout of the Taj Mahal, the grandest architectural accomplishment of his reign. Here the white marble mausoleum was placed on a terrace by the edge of the river and the garden was to its south. Shah Jahan develop this architectural form as a means to control the access that nobles had to the river.

      Q26. Write a short note on Qutb Minar.

      Ans. Qutbuddin Aybak had this constructed around 1199. The Qutb Minar is five storeys high. There is pattern created under the balcony by the small arches and geometrical designs. Surface of the minar is curved and angular. Placing an inscription on such a surface required great precision. Only the most skilled craftsperson could perform this task.


      Q27. What role did the Yamuna play in the layout of the new Mughal city at Shahjahanabad?
      What were the main features of Shah Jahan's new city Shahjahanabad?

      Ans. In the new city of Shahjahanabad that he constructed in Delhi, the imperial palace commanded the river-front. Only specially favoured nobles – like his eldest son Dara Shukoh – were given access to the river. All others had to construct their homes in the city away from the River Yamuna.


      Q28. What kinds of structure were built between 8th and 18th century?

      Ans. Between the eighth and the eighteenth centuries kings and their officers built two kinds of structures:

                            i.        The first were forts, palaces, garden residences and tombs – safe, protected and grandiose places of rest in this world.

                            ii.        The second were structures meant for public activity including temples, mosques, tanks, wells, caravanserais and bazaars.

      Q29. What are the main features of Humayun’s tomb?

      Ans. The central towering dome and the tall gateway (pishtaq) became important aspects of Mughal architecture, first visible in Humayun’s tomb. The tomb was placed in the centre of a huge formal chahar bagh and built in the tradition known as “eight paradises” or hasht bihisht – a central hall surrounded by eight rooms. The building was constructed with red sandstone, edged with white marble.


      Q30. Write a short note on the chahar bagh constructed by the Mughals rulers.

      Ans. In his autobiography, Babur described his interest in planning and laying out formal gardens, placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels. These gardens were called chahar bagh, four gardens, because of their symmetrical division into quarters. Beginning with Akbar, some of the most beautiful chahar baghs were constructed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan in Kashmir, Agra and Delhi.


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