Q20. Which style was used in the construction between the eighth
and thirteenth centuries?
Between the eighth and thirteenth centuries the trabeate style was used in the
construction of temples, mosques, tombs and in buildings attached to large
Q21. Why were temples destroyed?
Temples were destroyed because kings built temples to demonstrate their devotion
to God and their power and wealth. It is not surprising that when they attacked
one another’s kingdoms they often targeted these buildings.
Q22. Who built Qutb Minar?
The first floor was constructed by Qutbuddin Aybak and the rest by Iltutmish
around 1229. Over the years it was damaged by lightning and earthquakes and
repaired by Alauddin Khalji, Muhammad Tughluq, Firuz Shah Tughluq and Ibrahim
Q23. What types of architects found between seventh and tenth
Between the seventh and tenth centuries architects started adding more rooms,
doors and windows to buildings. Roofs, doors and windows were still made by
placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns, a style of architecture
called “trabeate” or “corbelled”.
Q24. How is the “trabeate” principle of architecture different
from the “arcuate”?
Ans. In “trabeate” principle of architecture roofs,
doors and windows were made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns.
principle of architecture the weight of the superstructure above the doors and
windows was sometimes carried by arches.
Q25. Write a short note on architecture of Taj Mahal.
Jahan adapted the river-front garden in the layout of the Taj Mahal, the
grandest architectural accomplishment of his reign. Here the white marble mausoleum
was placed on a terrace by the edge of the river and the garden was to its
south. Shah Jahan develop this architectural form as a means
to control the access that nobles had to the river.
Q26. Write a short note on Qutb Minar.
Aybak had this constructed around 1199. The Qutb Minar is five storeys
is pattern created under the balcony by the small arches and geometrical
designs. Surface of the minar is curved and angular. Placing an
inscription on such a surface required great precision. Only
the most skilled craftsperson could perform this task.
Q27. What role did the Yamuna play in the layout of the new
Mughal city at Shahjahanabad?
What were the main features of Shah Jahan's new city
In the new city of Shahjahanabad that he constructed in Delhi, the imperial
palace commanded the river-front. Only specially favoured nobles – like his
eldest son Dara Shukoh – were given access to the river. All others had to
construct their homes in the city away from the River Yamuna.
Q28. What kinds of structure were built between 8th and 18th
Between the eighth and the eighteenth centuries kings and their officers built
two kinds of structures:
The first were forts, palaces, garden
residences and tombs – safe, protected and grandiose places of rest in this
The second were structures meant for public
activity including temples, mosques, tanks, wells, caravanserais and bazaars.
Q29. What are the main features of Humayun’s tomb?
The central towering dome and the tall gateway (pishtaq) became important
aspects of Mughal architecture, first visible in Humayun’s tomb. The tomb was
placed in the centre of a huge formal chahar bagh and built in the tradition
known as “eight paradises” or hasht bihisht – a central hall surrounded by
eight rooms. The building was constructed with red sandstone, edged with white
Q30. Write a short note on the chahar bagh constructed by the Mughals
In his autobiography, Babur described his interest in planning and laying out
formal gardens, placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into
four quarters by artificial channels. These gardens were called chahar bagh,
four gardens, because of their symmetrical division into quarters. Beginning with
Akbar, some of the most beautiful chahar baghs were constructed by Jahangir and
Shah Jahan in Kashmir, Agra and Delhi.