Topic outline

    • Rulers and Buildings

      Q1. What were havelis?

      Ans. Large mansions of merchants were called havelis.


      Q2. When was Humayun tomb constructed?

      Ans. Tomb of Humayun, constructed between 1562 and 1571.


      Q3. How did Persian court chronicles describe sultan?

      Ans. Persian court chronicles described the Sultan as the “Shadow of God”.


      Q4. Explain the term mahamandapa.

      Ans. It refers to the main hall of the temple where dances were performed.


      Q5. What is a superstructure?

      Ans. Superstructure refers to the part of a building above the ground floor.

      Q6. Who built Jami Masjid?

      Ans. Jami Masjid was built by Shah Jahan in his new capital at Shahjahanabad.


      Q7. Who built Rajarajeshvara temple?

      Ans. It was built by King Rajarajadeva for the worship of his god, Rajarajeshvaram


      Q8. What is a shikhara?

      Ans. Shikhara, a Sanskrit word translating literally to "mountain peak", refers to the rising tower in the Hindu temple architecture of North India.


      Q9. What is pietra-dura?

      Ans. Pietra-dura refers to coloured, hard stones placed in depressions carved into marble or sandstone creating beautiful, ornate patterns.


      Q10. Who constructed kandariya mahadeva temple and when?

      Ans. The Kandariya Mahadeva temple dedicated to Shiva was constructed in 999 by the king Dhangadeva of the Chandela dynasty.

      Q11. What is the special feature of Akbar’s capital at Fatehpur Sikri?

      Ans. In Akbar’s capital at Fatehpur Sikri many of the buildings show the influence of the architectural styles of Gujarat and Malwa.


      Q12. Who invaded Sri Lanka and whom did he defeat?

      Ans. In the early ninth century the Pandyan king Shrimara Shrivallabha invaded Sri Lanka and defeated the king, Sena I (831-851).


      Q13. How much labor and materials was used to build the Agra Fort?

      Ans. Built by Akbar, the Agra Fort required 2,000 stone-cutters, 2,000 cement and lime-makers and 8,000 labourers.


      Q14. Who won the universal respect for constructing a large reservoir just outside Dehli-i-Kuhna?

      Ans. Sultan Iltutmish won universal respect for constructing a large reservoir just outside Dehli-i-Kuhna.


      Q15. Where is Harmandar Sahib?

      Ans. The Golden Temple, also known as Sri Harmandar Sahib ("abode of God") or Darbar Sahib, is a Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.

      Q16. What was Hauz-i-Sultani?

      Ans. Sultan Iltutmish won universal respect for constructing a large reservoir just outside Dehli-i-Kuhna. It was called the Hauz-i-Sultani or the “King’s Reservoir”.


      Q17. Why was limestone used in construction of large structures?

      Ans. Limestone was very high-quality cement, which, when mixed with stone chips hardened into concrete. This made construction of large structures easier and faster.


      Q18. What are the elements of a Mughal chahar bagh garden?

      Ans. Mughal chahar bagh garden consisted of four gardens. These gardens are placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels.


      Q19. How did king win the praise of their subjects?

      Ans. Kings were expected to care for their subjects, and by making structures such as temples, mosques, tanks, wells, caravanserais and bazaars for public activity, rulers hoped to win their praise.


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