Ans. The idea of the “Three Orders” was first formulated in France in the early eleventh century. It divided society into three classes: those who prayed, those who fought, and those who tilled the land. This division of society into “Three Orders” was supported by the Church to consolidate its dominant role in society. This helped the emergence of a new warrior group called knights.
Ans. The Delhi Sultans built several mosques in cities all over the subcontinent. These demonstrated their claims to be protectors of Islam and Muslims. Mosques also helped to create the sense of a community of believers who shared a belief system and a code of conduct. It was necessary to reinforce this idea of a community because Muslims came from a variety of backgrounds.
Ans. Quwwat al-Islam mosque and minaret built during the last decade of the twelfth century. This was the congregational mosque of the first city built by the Delhi Sultans, described in the chronicles as Dehli-I kuhna (the old city). The mosque was enlarged by Iltutmish and Alauddin Khalji. The minar was built by three Sultans– Qutbuddin Aybak, Iltutmish and Firuz Shah Tughluq.
Ans. Forests were cleared in the Ganga-Yamuna doab and hunter gatherers and pastoralists expelled from their habitat. These lands were given to peasants and agriculture was encouraged. New fortresses and towns were established to protect trade routes and to promote regional trade.
No, deforestation does not occur for the same reasons today. Today forests are cleared due to overpopulation, urbanization and commercialization.
Ans. The two reasons that prompted Muhammad-bin- Tughluq to shift the capital to Daulatabad were:
i. The king felt that he would be able to control and administer the empire better from Daulatabad since it was located in the centre of empire.
ii. The Mongols were a constant threat to Delhi. Daulatabad would be safe from Mongol attacks.
Ans. Muhammad Tughluq’s administrative measures were a failure. His campaign into Kashmir was a disaster. He then gave up his plans to invade Transoxiana and disbanded his large army. Meanwhile, his administrative measures created complications. The shifting of people to Daulatabad was resented. The raising of taxes and famine in the Ganga-Yamuna belt led to widespread rebellion. And finally, the “token” currency had to be recalled.
Ans. Muhammad Tughluq also paid his soldiers cash salaries. But instead of controlling prices, he used a “token” currency, somewhat like present-day paper currency, but made out of cheap metals, not gold and silver. People in the fourteenth century did not trust these coins. They were very smart: they saved their gold and silver coins and paid all their taxes to the state with this token currency. This cheap currency could also be counterfeited easily.
Ans. Alauddin Khalji raised a large standing army. The soldiers had to be paid. Alauddin chose to pay his soldiers salaries in cash rather than iqtas. The soldiers would buy their supplies from merchants in Delhi and it was thus feared that merchants would raise their prices. To stop this, Alauddin controlled the prices of goods in Delhi. Prices were carefully surveyed by officers, and merchants who did not sell at the prescribed rates were punished.
Ans. The Mongols under Genghis Khan invaded Transoxiana in north-east Iran in 1219 and the Delhi Sultanate faced their onslaught soon after. Mongol attacks on the Delhi Sultanate increased during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and in the early years of Muhammad Tughluq’s rule. This forced the two rulers to mobilise a large standing army in Delhi which posed a huge administrative challenge.
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