Q45. Write a short note on idea of "Three orders"
formulated in France in the early eleventh century.
Ans. The idea of the “Three Orders” was first
formulated in France in the early eleventh century. It divided society into
three classes: those who prayed, those who fought, and those who tilled the
land. This division of society into “Three Orders” was supported by the Church to
consolidate its dominant role in society. This helped the emergence of a new
warrior group called knights.
Q46. Discuss the importance of constructing mosque by the rulers
of Delhi sultanate.
The Delhi Sultans built several mosques in cities all over the subcontinent.
These demonstrated their claims to be protectors of Islam and Muslims. Mosques
also helped to create the sense of a community of believers who shared a belief
system and a code of conduct. It was necessary to reinforce this idea of a
community because Muslims came from a variety of backgrounds.
Q47. What do you know about Quwwat al-Islam mosque?
Quwwat al-Islam mosque and minaret built during the last decade of the twelfth
century. This was the congregational mosque of the first city built by the
Delhi Sultans, described in the chronicles as Dehli-I kuhna (the old city). The
mosque was enlarged by Iltutmish and Alauddin Khalji. The minar was built by
three Sultans– Qutbuddin Aybak, Iltutmish and Firuz Shah Tughluq.
Q48. Why were the Delhi Sultans interested in cutting down forests?
Does deforestation occur for the same reasons today?
Forests were cleared in the Ganga-Yamuna doab and hunter gatherers and
pastoralists expelled from their habitat. These lands were given to peasants
and agriculture was encouraged. New fortresses and towns were established to
protect trade routes and to promote regional trade.
deforestation does not occur for the same reasons today. Today forests are
cleared due to overpopulation, urbanization and commercialization.
Q49. What were the two reasons that prompted Muhammad-bin-
Tughluq to shift the capital to Daulatabad?
The two reasons that prompted Muhammad-bin- Tughluq to shift the capital to
The king felt that he would be able to
control and administer the empire better from Daulatabad since it was located
in the centre of empire.
The Mongols were a constant threat to
Delhi. Daulatabad would be safe from Mongol attacks.
Q50. ‘Muhammad Tughluq’s administrative measures were a failure’.
Ans. Muhammad Tughluq’s administrative measures were
a failure. His campaign into Kashmir was a disaster. He then gave up his plans
to invade Transoxiana and disbanded his large army. Meanwhile, his
administrative measures created complications. The shifting of people to
Daulatabad was resented. The raising of taxes and famine in the Ganga-Yamuna
belt led to widespread rebellion. And finally, the “token” currency had to be
Q51. Write a short note on the ‘Token Currency System’ introduced
by Muhammad Tughlaq.
Ans. Muhammad Tughluq also paid his soldiers cash salaries.
But instead of controlling prices, he used a “token” currency, somewhat like
present-day paper currency, but made out of cheap metals, not gold and silver.
People in the fourteenth century did not trust these coins. They were very
smart: they saved their gold and silver coins and paid all their taxes to the state
with this token currency. This cheap currency could also be counterfeited
Q52. Why did Alauddin control the prices of goods in Delhi? What
did he do for this?
Ans. Alauddin Khalji raised a large standing army.
soldiers had to be paid. Alauddin chose to pay his soldiers salaries in cash
rather than iqtas. The soldiers would buy their supplies from merchants in
Delhi and it was thus feared that merchants would raise their prices. To stop
this, Alauddin controlled the prices of goods in Delhi. Prices were carefully
surveyed by officers, and merchants who did not sell at the prescribed rates were
Q53. What forced the two rulers Allauddin Khilji and Muhammed
Tughluq to mobilise a large standing army in Delhi?
Write briefly about the invasion of the Mongols and its results.
The Mongols under Genghis Khan invaded Transoxiana in north-east Iran in 1219
and the Delhi Sultanate faced their onslaught soon after. Mongol attacks on the
Delhi Sultanate increased during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and in the early
years of Muhammad Tughluq’s rule. This forced the two rulers to mobilise a
large standing army in Delhi which posed a huge administrative challenge.