Ans. According to the “Circle of Justice”, it was important for military commanders to keep the interests of the peasantry in mind because soldiers’ salaries come from the revenue collected from peasants and peasants can pay revenue only when they are prosperous and happy.
Ans. The five dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate are:
i. Early Turkish Rulers 1206- 1290
ii. Khalji Dynasty 1290 – 1320
iii. Tughluq Dynasty 1320 – 1414
iv. Sayyid Dynasty 1414 – 1451
v. Lodi Dynasty 1451 - 1526
Ans. The early Delhi Sultans, especially Iltutmish, favoured their special slaves purchased for military service because they were carefully trained to man some of the most important political offices in the kingdom. Since they were totally dependent upon their master, the Sultan could trust and rely upon them.
Ans. Four stages in the preparation of a manuscript
1. Preparing the paper.
2. Writing the text.
3. Melting gold to highlight important words and passages.
4. Preparing the binding.
Ans. The early Delhi Sultans, especially Iltutmish, favoured their special slaves purchased for military service, called bandagan in Persian. They were carefully trained to man some of the most important political offices in the kingdom. Since they were totally dependent upon their master, the Sultan could trust and rely upon them.
Ans. Sultan Muhammad Tughluq appointed Aziz Khummar, a wine distiller, Firuz Hajjam, a barber, Mank a Tabbakh, a cook, and two gardeners, Ladha and Pira, to high administrative posts. Ziyauddin Barani, a midfourteenth century-chronicler, reported their appointments as a sign of the Sultan’s loss of political judgement and his incapacity to rule.
Ans. The impact of the Mongol invasions on the Delhi Sultanate
i. Alauddin constructed a new garrison town named Siri for his soldiers. He imposed taxes at 50 per cent of the peasant’s yield to feed the army. He began to pay his soldiers salaries in cash rather than iqtas.
ii. Muhammad Tughluq shifted residents of Delhi to the new capital of Daulatabad in the south and converted Delhi into garrison town.
Ans. Delhi first became the capital of a kingdom under the Tomara Rajputs, who were defeated in the middle of the twelfth century by the Chauhans (also referred to as Chahamanas) of Ajmer. It was under the Tomaras and Chauhans that Delhi became an important commercial centre. Many rich Jaina merchants lived in the city and constructed several temples. Coins minted here, called dehliwal, had a wide circulation.
Ans. The Sultans seldom controlled the hinterland of the cities and were therefore dependent upon trade, tribute or plunder for supplies. Controlling garrison towns in distant Bengal and Sind from Delhi was extremely difficult. Rebellion, war, even bad weather could snap fragile communication routes. The state was also challenged by Mongol invasions from Afghanistan and by governors who rebelled at any sign of the Sultan’s weakness.
Ans. Raziyya was Sultan Iltutmish’s daughter. In 1236 she became Sultan. The chronicler of the age, Minhaj-i Siraj, recognised that she was more able and qualified than all her brothers. But he was not comfortable at having a queen as ruler. Nor were the nobles happy at her attempts to rule independently. So, she was removed from the throne in 1240.
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