Q35. According to the “Circle of Justice”, why was it important
for military commanders to keep the interests of the peasantry in mind?
to the “Circle of Justice”, it was important for military commanders to keep
the interests of the peasantry in mind because soldiers’ salaries come from the
revenue collected from peasants and peasants can pay revenue only when they are
prosperous and happy.
Q36. List the five dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate?
The five dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate are:
Early Turkish Rulers 1206- 1290
Khalji Dynasty 1290 – 1320
Tughluq Dynasty 1320 – 1414
Sayyid Dynasty 1414 – 1451
Lodi Dynasty 1451 - 1526
Q37. Why the early Delhi Sultans, especially Iltutmish, favoured
their special slaves purchased for military service?
early Delhi Sultans, especially Iltutmish, favoured their special slaves
purchased for military service because they were carefully trained to man some
of the most important political offices in the kingdom. Since they were totally
dependent upon their master, the Sultan could trust and rely upon them.
Q38. What were the four stages involved in the preparation of a
Four stages in the preparation of a manuscript
Preparing the paper.
Writing the text.
Melting gold to highlight important words and passages.
Preparing the binding.
Q39. Who were the bandagans and what was their role in the Delhi
early Delhi Sultans, especially Iltutmish, favoured their special slaves purchased
for military service, called bandagan in Persian. They were carefully trained
to man some of the most important political offices in the kingdom. Since they
were totally dependent upon their master, the Sultan could trust and rely upon
Q40. Why do you think Barani criticised the Sultan?
Muhammad Tughluq appointed Aziz Khummar, a wine distiller, Firuz Hajjam, a
barber, Mank a Tabbakh, a cook, and two gardeners, Ladha and Pira, to high
administrative posts. Ziyauddin Barani, a midfourteenth century-chronicler,
reported their appointments as a sign of the Sultan’s loss of political judgement
and his incapacity to rule.
Q41. What was the impact of the Mongol invasions on the Delhi
impact of the Mongol invasions on the Delhi Sultanate
Alauddin constructed a new garrison town
named Siri for his soldiers. He imposed taxes at 50 per cent of the peasant’s
yield to feed the army. He began to pay his soldiers salaries in cash rather
Muhammad Tughluq shifted residents of Delhi
to the new capital of Daulatabad in the south and converted Delhi into garrison
Q42. How did Delhi become an important city in the twelfth
Delhi first became the capital of a kingdom under the Tomara Rajputs, who were defeated
in the middle of the twelfth century by the Chauhans (also referred to as
Chahamanas) of Ajmer. It was under the Tomaras and Chauhans that Delhi became
an important commercial centre. Many rich Jaina merchants lived in the city and
constructed several temples. Coins minted here, called dehliwal, had a wide
Q43. Why did the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate fail to control
the hinterlands initially?
The Sultans seldom controlled the hinterland of the cities and were therefore dependent
upon trade, tribute or plunder for supplies. Controlling garrison towns in
distant Bengal and Sind from Delhi was extremely difficult. Rebellion, war, even
bad weather could snap fragile communication routes. The state was also
challenged by Mongol invasions from Afghanistan and by governors who rebelled
at any sign of the Sultan’s weakness.
Q44. Who was Raziyya? Why was she removed from the throne?
Raziyya was Sultan Iltutmish’s daughter. In 1236 she became Sultan. The chronicler
of the age, Minhaj-i Siraj, recognised that she was more able and qualified
than all her brothers. But he was not comfortable at having a queen as ruler. Nor
were the nobles happy at her attempts to rule independently. So, she was
removed from the throne in 1240.