Ans. Alauddin Khalji made the state directly responsible for the collection of land revenue.
Ans. Ibn Battuta was the famous traveler who came from Morocco, Africa in the fourteenth century.
Ans. Yes, I think that as today scenario has changed. Due to spread of education, women leaders are accepted more readily today.
Ans. Begumpuri mosque, built in the reign of Muhammad Tughluq, was the main mosque of Jahanpanah, the “Sanctuary of the World”, his new capital in Delhi.
Ans. Gender distinctions mean social and biological differences between women and men. Usually, these differences are used to argue that men are superior to women.
Ans. There were three types of taxes – (1) on cultivation called kharaj and amounting to about 50 per cent of the peasant’s produce, (2) on cattle and (3) on houses.
Ans. Birthright means privileges claimed on account of birth. For example, people believed that nobles inherited their rights to govern, because they were born in certain families.
Ans. The authors of tawarikh were learned men: secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers, who both recounted events and advised rulers on governance, emphasising the importance of just rule.
Ans. Like the earlier Sultans, the Khalji and Tughluq monarchs appointed military commanders as governors of territories of varying sizes. These lands were called iqta and their holder was called iqtadar or muqti.
Ans. Inscriptions, coins and architecture provide a lot of information, especially valuable are “histories”, tarikh (singular) / tawarikh (plural), written in Persian, the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.
Ans. In exchange for their military services, the muqtis collected the revenues of their assignments as salary. They also paid their soldiers from these revenues.
Ans. “Internal frontiers” of the Sultanate mean the hinterlands of the garrison towns. The “external” frontiers of the Sultanate mean unconquered territories such as Southern India.
Ans. Alauddin’s administrative measures were quite successful and chroniclers praised his reign for its cheap prices and efficient supplies of goods in the market. He successfully withstood the threat of Mongol invasions.
Ans. In 1236 Sultan Iltutmish’s daughter, Raziyya, became Sultan after Iltutmish. Minhaj-i Siraj thought that the queen’s rule went against the ideal social order created by God, in which women were supposed to be subordinate to men.
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