Q62. Give the reason for the walk out from the Assembly of
Estate General by the members of Third Estate on 5th May 1789. What were the
two steps taken by the members of Third Estate after walk out?
Ans. Voting in the Estates General in the past had
been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote. This
time too Louis XVI was determined to continue the same practice. But members of
the third estate demanded that voting now be conducted by the assembly as a
whole, where each member would have one vote. When the king
rejected this proposal, members of the third estate walked out of the assembly in
representatives of the third estate viewed themselves as spokesmen for the
whole French nation. On 20 June they assembled in the hall of an indoor tennis
court in the grounds of Versailles. They declared themselves a National
Assembly and swore not to disperse till they had drafted a constitution for
France that would limit the powers of the monarch.
Q63. How did philosophers influence the thinking of the people
What role did philosophers play in bringing about the French
Describe the contribution of the French philosophers in the
outbreak of the Revolution of 1789.
Explain the role of philosophers in the French Revolution.
Describe the ideology of any three philosophers who influenced
the French Revolution.
Name any two philosophers who inspired the educated people of
Third Estate. Also mention the ideas forth by them.
Ans. Role of philosophers in French Revolution
In his Two Treatises of Government, Locke
sought to refute the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the monarch.
Rousseau carried the idea forward,
proposing a form of government based on a social contract between people and
In The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu
proposed a division of power within the government between the legislative, the
executive and the judiciary.
The ideas of these philosophers were
discussed intensively in salons and coffee-houses and spread among people
through books and newspapers. These were frequently read aloud in groups for
the benefit of those who could not read and write.
Q64. Who were entitled to vote in France as per Constitution of
1791, framed by National Assembly? State any three rights given to the people
by this constitution.
Ans. Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes
equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s
wage were given the status of active citizens, that is, they were entitled to vote.
The remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizens. To qualify as
an elector and then as a member of the Assembly, a man had to belong to the
highest bracket of taxpayers.
Constitution began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Rights
such as the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality
before law, were established as ‘natural
and inalienable rights,
that is, they belonged to each human being by birth and could not be taken
away. It was the duty of the state to protect each citizen’s natural rights.
Q65. How would you explain the rise of Napoleon?
Describe the rise of Napoleon.
Who was Napoleon? Describe the rise of Napoleon.
What reforms did Napoleon introduced in France?
Ans. Rise of Napoleon
The political instability of the Directory paved the way for the rise of a
military dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte.
In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor of France. He set out to
conquer neighbouring European countries, dispossessing dynasties and creating
kingdoms where he placed members of his family. Napoleon saw his role as a
moderniser of Europe.
He introduced many laws such as the protection of private property and a
uniform system of weights and measures provided by the decimal system.
Initially, many saw Napoleon as a liberator who would bring freedom for the
people. But soon the Napoleonic armies came to be viewed everywhere as an invading
Q66. Evaluate the importance of the following years in concern
with French Revolution, 1774, 1789, 1791, 1792-93, 1804 and 1815.
Ans. Some important dates
- Louis XVI becomes king of France, faces empty treasury and growing discontent
within society of the Old Regime.
- Convocation of Estates General, Third Estate forms National Assembly, the Bastille
is stormed, peasant revolts in the countryside.
- A constitution is framed to limit the powers of the king and to guarantee
basic rights to all human beings.
- France becomes a republic, the king is beheaded. Overthrow of the Jacobin
republic, a Directory rules France.
- Napoleon becomes emperor of France, annexes large parts of Europe.
- Napoleon defeated at Waterloo.
Q67. Describe how abolition of slavery became possible in France.
How did abolition of slavery become possible in France? Explain.
Ans. Abolition of slavery
Throughout the eighteenth century there was
little criticism of slavery in France.
The National Assembly held long debates
about whether the rights of man should be extended to all French subjects
including those in the colonies.
It was finally the Convention which in 1794
legislated to free all slaves in the French overseas possessions.
This, however, turned out to be a
short-term measure: ten years later, Napoleon reintroduced slavery.
Slavery was finally abolished in French
colonies in 1848.