Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Q73. Who demanded constitution during 1905 revolution? Who supported them?
Ans. Liberals in Russia campaigned to end this state of affairs. Together with the Social Democrats and Socialist Revolutionaries, they worked with peasants and workers during the revolution of 1905 to demand a constitution. They were supported in the empire by nationalists (in Poland for instance) and in Muslim-dominated areas by jadidists who wanted modernised Islam to lead their societies.
Q74. Why is Tsarist Russia termed as a repressive society?
Ans. Tsarist Russia termed as a repressive society because:
- The nobility, the crown and the Orthodox Church owned large properties. Nobles got their power and position through their services to the Tsar, not through local popularity.
- All political parties were illegal in Russia before 1914.
- Tsar enjoyed unconditional power without being responsible.
Q75. What was the significance of Bloody Sunday?
Ans. The incident, known as Bloody Sunday, started a series of events that became known as the 1905 Revolution. Strikes took place all over the country and universities closed down when student bodies staged walkouts, complaining about the lack of civil liberties. Lawyers, doctors, engineers and other middle-class workers established the Union of Unions and demanded a constituent assembly.
Q76. How should society develop according to liberals and radicals?
Ans. Almost all industries were the property of individuals. Liberals and radicals themselves were often property owners and employers. Opposed to the privileges the old aristocracy had by birth, they firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labour and enterprise. If freedom of individuals was ensured, if the poor could labour, and those with capital could operate without restraint, they believed that societies would develop.
Q77. What was the basic principle of marxist theory?
Ans. According to Marx the conditions of workers could not improve as long as profit was accumulated by private capitalists. Workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property. Marx believed that to free themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled. This would be a communist society.
Q78. Describe the views of Conservatives.
What were the views of Conservatives?
Write a short note on ‘Conservatives’.
Ans. The following were the views of Conservatives:
- Conservatives were opposed to radicals and liberals.
- Earlier, in the eighteenth century, conservatives had been generally opposed to the idea of change.
- By the nineteenth century, they accepted that some change was inevitable but believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process.
Q79. What were the immediate consequences of the Russian Revolution?
Ans. The immediate consequences of the Russian Revolution were:
- Most industry and banks were nationalised in November 1917. This meant that the government took over ownership and management. Land was declared social property.
- In cities, Bolsheviks enforced the partition of large houses according to family requirements.
- They banned the use of the old titles of aristocracy.
Q80. In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?
Ans. About 85 per cent of the Russian empire’s population earned their living from agriculture. This proportion was higher than in most European countries. For instance, in France and Germany the proportion was between 40 per cent and 50 per cent. In the empire, cultivators produced for the market as well as for their own needs. Russia was a major exporter of grain. Russian peasants were different from other European peasants in another way. They pooled their land together periodically and their commune (mir) divided it according to the needs of individual families.
Q81. State any three events after the Bloody Sunday which led to the revolution of 1905 in Russia.
Ans. The three events after the Bloody Sunday which led to the revolution of 1905 in Russia were:
- Strikes took place all over the country.
- Universities closed down when student bodies staged walkouts, complaining about the lack of civil liberties.
- Lawyers, doctors, engineers and other middle-class workers established the Union of Unions and demanded a constituent assembly.