Ans. They firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labour and enterprise. If freedom of individuals was ensured, if the poor could labour, and those with capital could operate without restraint, they believed that societies would develop.
Ans. Social Democrats disagreed with Socialist Revolutionaries about peasants. Lenin felt that peasants were not one united group. Some were poor and others rich, some worked as labourers while others were capitalists who employed workers.
Ans. In the countryside, peasants cultivated most of the land. But the nobility, the crown and the Orthodox Church owned large properties. They had no respect for the nobility. In Russia, peasants wanted the land of the nobles to be given to them. Frequently, they refused to pay rent and even murdered landlords. Such incidents took place all over Russia.
Ans. When the procession of workers led by Father Gapon reached the Winter Palace it was attacked by the police and the Cossacks. Over 100 workers were killed and about 300 wounded. The incident was known as Bloody Sunday. This incident started a series of events that became known as the 1905 Revolution.
Ans. Socialists had different visions of the future. Some believed in the idea of cooperatives. Robert Owen, a leading English manufacturer, sought to build a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana (USA). Other socialists Louis Blanc wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprises.
Ans. The main objectives of Russian Revolutionaries were:
Ans. The party was divided over the strategy of organisation. Vladimir Lenin (who led the Bolshevik group) thought that in a repressive society like Tsarist Russia the party should be disciplined and should control the number and quality of its members. Others (Mensheviks) thought that the party should be open to all (as in Germany).
Ans. Individuals owned the property that gave employment but the propertied were concerned only with personal gain and not with the welfare of those who made the property productive. So if society as whole rather than single individuals controlled property, more attention would be paid to collective social interests. Socialists wanted this change and campaigned for it.
Ans. The following were the effects of February revolution in Russia:
Download to practice offline.