Topic outline

    • Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

      Q64. What were the firm beliefs of liberals?
      How would society develop according to the liberals?

      Ans. They firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labour and enterprise. If freedom of individuals was ensured, if the poor could labour, and those with capital could operate without restraint, they believed that societies would develop.


      Q65. On what point did the social democrats and socialist revolutionaries differ with each other?

      Ans. Social Democrats disagreed with Socialist Revolutionaries about peasants. Lenin felt that peasants were not one united group. Some were poor and others rich, some worked as labourers while others were capitalists who employed workers.


      Q66. Discuss the relationship between peasants and nobles in Russia.

      Ans. In the countryside, peasants cultivated most of the land. But the nobility, the crown and the Orthodox Church owned large properties. They had no respect for the nobility. In Russia, peasants wanted the land of the nobles to be given to them. Frequently, they refused to pay rent and even murdered landlords. Such incidents took place all over Russia.


      Q67. What was bloody Sunday?
      Describe the incident known as ‘Bloody Sunday’.
      What is known as Bloody Sunday?
      What happened during the Bloody Sunday?
      Which event in Russian history is known as ‘Bloody Sunday’?

      Ans. When the procession of workers led by Father Gapon reached the Winter Palace it was attacked by the police and the Cossacks. Over 100 workers were killed and about 300 wounded. The incident was known as Bloody Sunday. This incident started a series of events that became known as the 1905 Revolution.


      Q68. What were the two different visions of the socialist for future?
      What were the two different visions of the socialists in the 19th century?

      Ans. Socialists had different visions of the future. Some believed in the idea of cooperatives. Robert Owen, a leading English manufacturer, sought to build a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana (USA). Other socialists Louis Blanc wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprises.


      Q69. What were the main objectives of Russian Revolution?
      What were the objectives of the Russian Revolutionaries?

      Ans. The main objectives of Russian Revolutionaries were:

      1. To secure peace and withdraw Russia from the First World War. 
      2. To transfer land to the tiller. 
      3. To improve the condition of industrial worker. 
      4. To provide equal status to the non-Russian nationalists.


      Q70. How was socialist revolutionary party divided over the strategy of organization?

      Ans. The party was divided over the strategy of organisation. Vladimir Lenin (who led the Bolshevik group) thought that in a repressive society like Tsarist Russia the party should be disciplined and should control the number and quality of its members. Others (Mensheviks) thought that the party should be open to all (as in Germany).


      Q71. Why were socialists against private property, and saw it as the root of all social ills of the time?
      Socialists were against private property, and saw it as the root of all social ills of the time. Why?
      To what changes did the socialists campaign for?
      Explain the socialists view on private property.

      Ans. Individuals owned the property that gave employment but the propertied were concerned only with personal gain and not with the welfare of those who made the property productive. So if society as whole rather than single individuals controlled property, more attention would be paid to collective social interests. Socialists wanted this change and campaigned for it.


      Q72. What were the effects of February revolution in Russia?

      Ans. The following were the effects of February revolution in Russia:

      1. Tsar was abdicated on 2 March and monarchy was brought down.
      2. Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government to run the country.
      3. Russias future would be decided by a constituent assembly, elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage.