Topic outline

    • Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

      Q52. Mention the type of government favoured by liberals.

      Ans. Liberals argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials.


      Q53. Name the religion practiced in Russian empire.
      What was the main religion in Russian empire?

      Ans. The majority religion was Russian Orthodox Christianity which had grown out of the Greek Orthodox Church but the empire also included Catholics, Protestants, Muslims and Buddhists.


      Q54. Why were most of the Bolshevik party members initially surprised by April theses?

      Ans. Most others in the Bolshevik Party were initially surprised by the April Theses. They thought that the time was not yet ripe for a socialist revolution and the Provisional Government needed to be supported. 


      Q55. How can you say that the liberals were not democrats?
      ‘Liberals were not democrats’. Explain
      Why do we say that the liberals cannot be called democrats?

      Ans. Liberals were not democrats. They did not believe in universal adult franchise, that is, the right of every citizen to vote. They felt men of property mainly should have the vote. They also did not want the vote for women.


      Q56. Which event took place after the Tsar abdicated on 2nd march?

      Ans. The events that took place after the Tsar abdicated on 2nd march 1917 were:

      1. Forming of provisional government.
      2. Decision to set up constituent assembly.


      Q57. Why did the lockout take place at a factory on the right bank of the river Neva on 22nd February 1917?

      Ans. A lockout took place at a factory on the right Bank of the river Neva on 22nd February, 1917 in favour of the workers at the left Bank of the river. They had a bad time due to severe winter and food shortages & therefore they wanted their demands to be fulfilled for their survival.


      Q58. Why did Karl Marx want workers to overthrow capitalism? 

      Ans. Karl Marx wanted workers to overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property. Marx believed that to free themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled.


      Q59. Mention the regions included in Russian empire.
      What countries were parts of the Russian empire?

      Ans. Besides the territory around Moscow, the Russian empire included current-day Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, parts of Poland, Ukraine and Belarus. It stretched to the Pacific and comprised todays Central Asian states, as well as Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.


      Q60. What were the demands of workers association formed in England and Germany?

      Ans. Workers in England and Germany began forming associations to fight for better living and working conditions. They set up funds to help members in times of distress and demanded a reduction of working hours and the right to vote.


      Q61. What was the difference between Bolshevik and Menshevik group?
      Who were the Bolshevik and Menshevik?

      Ans. Vladimir Lenin (who led the Bolshevik group) thought that in a repressive society like Tsarist Russia the party should be disciplined and should control the number and quality of its members. Others (Mensheviks) thought that the party should be open to all (as in Germany).


      Q62. What were the divisions in the layout of the Petrograd city?

      Ans. The layout of the city seemed to emphasise the divisions among its people. The workers quarters and factories were located on the right bank of the River Neva. On the left bank were the fashionable areas, the Winter Palace, and official buildings, including the palace where the Duma met.


      Q63. List the major changes during industrialization.
      What was the impact of industrialization?

      Ans. Industrialisation brought men, women and children to factories. Work hours were often long and wages were poor. Unemployment was common, particularly during times of low demand for industrial goods. Housing and sanitation were problems since towns were growing rapidly.