Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Q1. Fill in the blanks.
- One of the groups which looked to change society was the liberals.
- Industrialisation brought men, women and children to factories.
- Marx argued that industrial society was capitalist.
- Socialists took over the government in Russia through the October Revolution of 1917.
- In 1914, Tsar Nicholas II ruled Russia and its empire.
- Government supervised large factories to ensure minimum wages and limited hours of work.
- All political parties were illegal in Russia before 1914.
- In Russia, the war was initially popular and people rallied around Tsar Nicholas II.
- Petrograd had led the February Revolution that brought down the monarchy in February 1917.
- On Sunday, 25 February, the government suspended the Duma.
Q2. What was the new name given to the Bolshevik Party?
Ans. The Communist Party
Q3. List the names of two workers association.
Ans. Labour Party in Britain and a Socialist Party in France
Q4. Who was Giuseppe Mazzini?
Ans. Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian nationalist.
Q5. What was the problem associated with small size farms in Russia?
Ans. Small-sized peasant farms could not be modernised.
Q6. When did Lenin die, and who succeed him?
Ans. Lenin died in 1924 and Joseph Stalin succeeded him.
Q7. Who was the ruler of Russia in 1914?
Ans. In 1914, Tsar Nicholas II ruled Russia and its empire.
Q8. Name the prominent industrial areas in Russian empire.
Ans. Prominent industrial areas were St Petersburg and Moscow.
Q9. What type of nation did liberals want?
Ans. Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions.
Q10. Which division faced the food shortage in February 1917?
Ans. In February 1917, food shortages were deeply felt in the workers’ quarters.
Q11. Who was the prime minister of Russia when the October Revolution began?
Ans. Kerenskii was the prime minister of Russia when the October Revolution began.
Q12. Who formed the provisional government to run the country?
Ans. Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government to run the country.
Q13. What was the most significant result of the February revolution?
Ans. Abdication of Tsar Nicholas II was the most significant result of the February revolution.
Q14. Who were influential in the provisional government?
Ans. Army officials, landowners and industrialists were influential in the Provisional Government.
Q15. Mention one significant view of radicals.
Ans. Radicals wanted a nation in which government was based on the majority of a country’s population.
Q16. When did the conservatives become receptive to the need of change?
Ans. After the French Revolution conservatives had opened their minds to the need for change.
Q17. Name the international body formed to coordinate socialist efforts.
Which international body was formed in Europe in the 19th Century to co-ordinate the efforts of socialist all over Europe?
Ans. To coordinate their efforts, socialists formed an international body – namely, the Second International.
Q18. Who were Socialists?
Ans. Socialists were against private property, and saw it as the root of all social ills of the time.