Topic outline

    • India: Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife

      Q48. Explain the different types of seasons found in India.

      Ans. The major seasons recognized in India are:

      Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to February

      During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are quite low in northern India.

      Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May

      In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high. Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.

      Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy) June to September

      This season is marked by the onset and advance of monsoon. The winds blow from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal towards the land. They carry moisture with them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers, rainfall occurs.

      Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October and November

      Winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal. This is the season of the retreating monsoons. The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.

      Q49. Write a note on different types of vegetation found in India.

      Ans. Different types of vegetation found in India

      Tropical Rain Forests

      Tropical Rain Forests occur in the areas which receive heavy rainfall. They are so dense that sunlight doesn’t reach the ground. Many species of trees are found in these forests, which shed their leaves at different times of the year. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, parts of North-Eastern states and a narrow strip of the Western slope of the Western Ghats are home of these forests.

      Tropical Deciduous Forests

      In a large part of our country we have this type of forest. These forests are also called monsoon forests. They are less dense. They shed their leaves at a particular time of the year. Important trees of these forests are sal, teak, peepal, neem and shisham. They are found in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and in parts of Maharashtra.

      Thorny Bushes

      This type of vegetation is found in dry areas of the country. The leaves are in the form of spines to reduce the loss of water. Cactus, khair, babool, keekar are important and are found in the states of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of Western Ghats and Gujarat.

      Mountain Vegitation

      A wide range of species is found in the mountains according to the variation in height. With increase in height, the temperature falls. At a height between 1500 metres and 2500 metres most of the trees are conical in shape. These trees are called coniferous trees. Chir, Pine and Deodar are important trees of these forests.

      Mangrove Forests

      These forests can survive in saline water. They are found mainly in Sunderbans in West Bengal and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Sundari is a well-known species of trees in mangrove forests after which Sunderbans have been named.


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