Villages, Thriving Towns
Q1. Fill in the blanks.
a word used for large landowners in Tamil.
The gramabhojaka often got his land
cultivated by the slaves and hired workers.
Ploughmen were known as uzhavar in
Most grihapatis were smaller
Punch marked coins were made of silver.
are tall double-handled jars that contained liquids such as wine or oil.
Grama Bhojaka also functioned as a judge,
and sometimes as a policeman. True
Mathura was an important centre for the
worship of Lord Shiva. False
The Tamil terms are found in Sangam
Ring wells were used for bathing. False
Stamped red-glazed pottery, known as
Arretine Ware. True
Q3. When did the use of iron
begin in the subcontinent?
of iron in the subcontinent began about 3000 years ago.
Q4. What does vellalar mean?
the Tamil region, large landowners were known as vellalar.
Q5. Why were Varanasi and Madurai
were famous centres for manufacturing of cloth.
Q6. Where were some of the
largest collections of iron tools found?
These were found in the megalithic burials.
Q7. How wealth is measured during
Wealth is measured in terms of coins.
Q8. What were Shrenis?
Many crafts persons and merchants formed associations known as shrenis.
Q9. How did Dasa Karmakara earn a living?
Karmakara had to earn a living working on the fields owned by others.
Q10. Who was called Grama Bhojaka?
the northern part of the country, the village headman was known as the grama
Q11. Who was Dasa Karmakara?
were men and women who did not own land were known as the dasa karmakara.
Q12. What is Sangam literature?
Some of the earliest works in Tamil, known as Sangam literature, were composed
around 2300 years ago.
Q13. What was Arikamedu during
2200 and 1900 years ago, Arikamedu was a coastal settlement where ships
unloaded goods from distant lands.
Q14. What were aqueducts?
aqueducts were the channels to supply water which were built to bring water to
the city for the baths, fountains and toilets.
Q15. What do you understand by
were stories that were probably composed by ordinary people, and then written
down and preserved by Buddhist monks.
Q16. What are ring wells?
many cities, archaeologists have found rows of pots, or ceramic rings arranged
one on top of the other. These are known as ring wells.
Q17. Make a list of the occupations of people who lived in
main occupations of the people were goldsmiths, blacksmiths, weavers, basket
makers, garland makers, perfumers.
Q18. What were ring wells used for?
seem to have been used as toilets in some cases, and as drains and garbage
dumps. These ring wells are usually found in individual houses.