Ans. The teachings of Mahavira were written about 1500 years ago for the first time.
Ans. Constant craving could be removed by following moderation in everything.
Ans. Gargi was the woman Upanishadic thinker who was famous for her learning, and participated in debates held in royal courts.
Ans. According to Buddha, the results of our actions (called karma), whether good or bad, affect us both in this life and the next.
Ans. Upanishad literally means ‘approaching and sitting near’ and the texts contain conversations between teachers and students.
Ans. He arranged the vowels and the consonants in a special order, and then used these to create formulae like those found in Algebra.
Ans. Some of the thinkers wanted to know about life after death, others wanted to know why sacrifices should be performed.
Ans. The rules made for the Buddhist sangha were written down in a book called the Vinaya Pitaka.
Ans. No, it would have not been easy for slaves to join the sangha because they had to take the permission of their masters.
Ans. Buddha believed that the results of our actions (called karma), whether good or bad, affect us both in this life and the next.
Ans. Sometimes, even if we get what we want, we are not satisfied, and want even more (or want other things). The Buddha described this as thirst or tanha.
Ans. Some Zoroastrians migrated from Iran and settled down in the coastal towns of Gujarat and Maharashtra. They were the ancestors of today’s Parsis.
Ans. Many supporters of the monks and nuns, and they themselves, felt the need for more permanent shelters and so monasteries were built. These were known as viharas.
Ans. Many thinkers felt that there was something permanent in the universe that would last even after death. They described this as the atman or the individual soul and the brahman or the universal soul.
Ans. Anagha’s mother wanted her to know the story of the Buddha because she was going on a school trip to Varanasi (in Uttar Pradesh) and Sarnath near Varanasi is the place where Buddha taught for the first time.
Ans. After enlightenment, he was known as the Buddha or the Wise One. He then went to Sarnath, near Varanasi, where he taught for the first time. He spent the rest of his life travelling on foot, going from place to place, teaching people, till he passed away at Kusinara.
Ans. Jainism was supported mainly by traders. Farmers, who had to kill insects to protect their crops, found it more difficult to follow the rules. Over hundreds of years, Jainism spread to different parts of north India, and to Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
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