Ans. Shudras were excluded from every ritual because according to priests contact with these groups was polluting.
Ans. Vajji, with its capital at Vaishali (Bihar), was under a different form of government, known as gana or sangha.
Ans. Purana Qila in Delhi, Hastinapur near Meerut (Uttar Pradesh), and Atranjikhera, near Etah (Uttar Pradesh)
Ans. The cities of mahajanapadas were fortified by building huge walls of wood, brick or stone around them.
Ans. Later Vedic books were composed by priests, and described how rituals were to be performed. They also contained rules about society.
Ans. Taxes on crops were the most important. Usually, the tax was fixed at 1/6th of what was produced. This was known as bhaga or a share.
Ans. Some men by performing big sacrifices, like, the Ashvamedha Yajna or horse sacrifice, came to be recognised as rajas.
Ans. Magadha had two very powerful rulers, Bimbisara and Ajatasattu, who used all possible means to conquer other janapadas.
Ans. Some people such as those who were regarded as shudras by the priests were excluded from many rituals.
Ans. Around 2500 years ago, the people of Athens set up a form of government, which was called a democracy, which lasted for about 200 years.
Ans. Parts of Magadha were forested. Elephants, which lived in the forest, could be captured and trained for the army. Forests also provided wood for building houses, carts and chariots.
Ans. There were two major changes in agriculture around this time. One was the growing use of iron ploughshares. Second, people began transplanting paddy.
Ans. Alexander wanted to march further eastwards but his soldiers refused because they were scared, as they had heard that the rulers of India had vast armies of foot soldiers, chariots and elephants.
Ans. Iron plough considered better than that of wood because iron is hard and strong than wood and thus heavy, clayey soil could be turned over better than with a wooden ploughshare.
Ans. Four varnas
Ans. These books are often called later Vedic, because they were composed after the Rigveda. These were composed by priests, and described how rituals were to be performed. They also contained rules about society.
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