Topic outline

    • The Conjunction

      A Conjunction is a word which is used to join words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.

      Let’s read the following sentences.

            1.   Look at Dia and Sia.

            2.   We went to Nainital and had a great time.

            3.   Tia will not go to school tomorrow because she is not well.

            4.   Tanu is short, but Ria is tall.

            5.   He lost the match although he worked hard.

      In above sentences the all Conjunctions are marked in red.


      The Use of Conjunctions

      Using ‘and’

      ‘And’ is used to shows addition and is used when the statements are the similar or equal (i.e. without contrast).


            1.   I called my friend Sia and we played for an hour.

            2.   I shall go to the market and bring you toys.

            3.   He grows watermelon and muskmelon.

            4.   I am Tim, and I like pet animals.

            5.   Anu went to the nearby market and bought vegetables.

      Using ‘but’

      ‘But’ is used to join statements that express opposite ideas (i.e. but is used to presents a contrast or exceptions in ideas).


            1.   I eat cake, but I never eat biscuits.

            2.   Anisha goes to school but Pari stays at home.

            3.   Raman worked hard but he did not pass the exam.

            4.   I called Tom, but he wasn't at home.


      Using ‘or’

      We use ‘or’ before an alternative. In other word it is used to present an alternative item or idea.


            1.   Every day they play, or they watch movies.

            2.   Work hard or you will fail in the examination.


      Using ‘else’

      We use ‘else’ to show what will happen if something is not done or what another possibility is.


            1.   Work hard, else you will fail in the examination.

            2.   Do hard work, else you will not able to defeat him.

            3.   Leave this place or else you will be arrested for breaking the rule.

            4.   I think she can't do it or else she just isn't interested.

      Using ‘otherwise’

      We use ‘otherwise’ to introduce the possible outcome of a given situation. Or we can say that it is used express that if one thing does not happen, something else (usually bad) will happen.


        1. They must hurry up; otherwise, they will miss the flight.

        2. He must prepare well; otherwise, he will not clear the written test.

        3. She must work hard; otherwise she will fail in the examination.


      Using ‘unless’

      We use ‘unless’ to tell about something that can happen or may not happen in specific condition.


            1.   You won't get the award unless you work hard for it.

            2.   Don't take the assignment unless he tells you to.

            3.   Ria won’t go to the party unless Dia invites her.

            4.   I’m not going to the market unless you come too

            5.   We won’t get an appointment of the doctor unless we get there early.

            6.   Unless you work hard, you will fail in the examination.

            7.   You won’t pass the test unless you study.

      Using ‘so’

      We use ‘so’ to show result or consequence of something.


            1.   Tim was very hungry, so he ate all the cookies.

            2.   I wanted to study Delhi University, so I went to Delhi.

            3.   I have done MBA, so I found a good job.

            4.   He met his old friend at the restaurant, so they talked for a long time.

            5.   I am a vegetarian, so I don’t eat any chicken.

            6.   She is honest, so everyone trusts her.


      Using ‘because’

      We use ‘because’ to provide reason for an action.


            1.   I went to Delhi because I wanted to study English.

            2.   Because I wanted to learn English, I joined English school.

            3.   I stayed home because it rained heavily.

            4.   Tim quit the job because he hated politics there.

            5.   I cannot go to school because I am not well.

      Using ‘therefore’

      We use ‘therefore’ to tell the reason why something has happened.


            1.   It is raining heavily outside; therefore I cannot go to school.

            2.   Ravi arrived late at the bus stop, therefore he missed the bus.

            3.   The boy misbehaved with his teacher, therefore he was sent home.

            4.   Junk food is not good for health; therefore we should avoid it.


      Using ‘as’

      We use ‘as’ to give reason.


            1.   As it is raining, I cannot go to school.

            2.   As I am an honest person, I am against bribe.

            3.   As Dia was passing the bungalow, she heard a loud scream.

            4.   As I was suffering from very high fever I couldn’t attend the interview.


      Using ‘since’

      Since can also mean because or as.


            1.   Since it’s raining, I will stay home and watch a movie.

            2.   Since the train is going to be an hour late, let’s go and get some snacks.

            3.   Since it is raining, I cannot go to market today.

            4.   Since there’s no work in the office, we can all go home.

      Using ‘though’ and ‘although’

      We use Although/though to show contrast in ideas.


            1.   She could not clear the test, though tried her best.

            2.   Although he tried his best, he could not find a job.

            3.   Although the car was destroyed, nobody was injured in the accident.

            4.   Though he is a rich person, he drives a second-hand car.


      Using ‘still’

      We use ‘still’ to show contrast, despite something.


            1.   He tried often, still he could not pass.

            2.   It was futile, still they fought.


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