Topic outline

    • Preposition

      Read the following sentences.

            1.   Ram is going to the office.

            2.   Pen is kept on the table.

            3.   Dia will reach in 2 hours.

      All underlined word in the sentences given above show the position (place or time) or how things are related to one another. These words (to, on, in etc.) are termed as prepositions.

      A preposition is a word, which is used to show direction, location, time or to introduce an object and relates a noun, pronoun or noun phrase to other part of the sentence.

      Rules Regarding Prepositions

           1.   A preposition is followed by usually noun or noun phrase but sometime pronoun or gerund (ing form of verb) also.

           2.   If a sentence begins or ends with a preposition, it should be closely linked to another word.

           Example: Who did you speak to?

                      To whom did you speak?


           1.   Used to designate days of the week and dates.

           Example: Ayush birthday is on 8th January.

                         My grandparents are coming on Thursday evening.

           2.   Used to name streets, road, avenues etc.

           Example: My house is on expressway.

           3.   Used to state surface of something.

           Example: The red pen is on the desk.

           4.   Used to specify a device or a machine.

           Example: Anu is working on the computer since morning.

           5.   Used to specify the part of the body.

           Example: He hit me on my head.

           6.   Used to talk about state of something.

                  Example: This bike is on sale.


           1.   Used to specify definite time.

           Example: The train will reach station at 2:00 p.m.

           2.   Used with particular place.

           Example: People gathered at the park.

           3.   Used to point out any activity.

           Example: I am good at dance.



           1.   Used for undefined times during a day, a month, a season or a year.

           Example: Ravi started his business in 2015.

           2.   Used to specify name of the location or place such as cities, towns, states, countries, continents etc.

           Example: Ria lives in Delhi.

           3.   Used to specify a shape, color or size.

           Example: I bought ribbons in different color.

           4.   Used to specify a faith, views, interest or feeling.

                   Example: I believe in life after death.



      Used to express movement toward a place.

      Example: My mom is driving to the bank this morning.


      Used to specify how long anything continues i.e. duration of time in seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years).

      Example: Tia can hold her breath for 5 minutes.



      Use to specify time from a specific point in the past till now.

      Example: He has been waiting here since 9:00 am.



           1.   Used to specify an amount or a number.

           Example: I drank 3 cup of coffee yesterday.

           2.   Used to show belonging to or connected with.

                  Example: That bag is of my little sister.



           1.   Used to show feeling or emotion.

           Example: Ria acted with confidence.

           2.   Used to indicate usage of something.

           Example: Cook is cutting vegetable with knife.

           3.   Used to indicate possession.

           Example: People with less money are not always unhappy.

           4.   Used to indicate togetherness.

           Example: Attendant will be with you shortly.

           5.   Used to show understanding.

           Example: Do you agree with me?


           1.   Used to indicate something extending directly upwards from something.

           Example: Kite is flying over the tree.

           2.   Used to express more than estimated amount.

           Example: Ravi’s result is over my expectation.

           3.   Used to indicate period of time.

           Example: I worked in this school over a year.

           4.   Used to show some movement.

           Example: His father sent over a packet of books on his birthday.



           1.   Used to talk about means or method.

           Example: We are going Delhi by airplane.

           2.   Used to indicate closeness.

           Example: ATM is by the mall.

           3.   Used to who does something.

           Example: The letter was delivered by postman.

           4.   Used to indicate certain action for particular reason.

           Example: You clear this exam by preparing hard for this.



           1.   Used to indicate inside something.

           Example: He dived into the sea to save the drowning child.

           2.   Used to show change in the state.

           Example: Water changed into ice on freezing.


      Used to indicate gap or space that separates two things.

      Example: Dia is sitting between Jia and Ria.



      Used to indicate group or mass or collection or in middle of something.

      Example: The sweets are distributed among five of us.



      Used to express “close to” or “next to”.

      Example: Dia is sitting beside me.



      Used to express “in addition to something” or “apart from something”.

      Example: Three girls besides Dia were playing with sand beside sea.



      Used to show some kind of measurement on a scale or to show something that is not below each other.

      Example: Tinku is performing below average.



      Used to indicate something exactly below it or less than something.

      Example: Pen is lying under the bed.



           1.   Used to show disagreement.

           Example: We should not do anything against the law.

           2.   Used to indicate something is touching something.

           Example: Rohan is standing against the wall.

           3.   Used to show prevention of something.

           Example: He is vaccinated against polio.

           4.   Used to show comparison.

           Example: We must see the benefit of this machine against its cost.


           1.   Used to show movement from one side to another or from one place to another.

           Example: The sailors sailed across the sea.

           2.   Used to indicate opposite side of a road, river, line etc.

           Example: There is a big orchard across the river.

           3.   Used to point out several parts of an area.

           Example: School has several branches across the country.



           1.   Used to point out higher place or position than something.

           Example: The water in the dam rising above the marked line.

           2.   Used to indicate something is greater than something in number or level or age.

           Example: This month inflation is above average.

           3.   Used to show higher quality compared to something.

           Example: I like this above all other things.



           1.   Used to point something at or toward the back of something.

           Example: Who is standing behind Ria?

           2.   Used to show less progress or improvement compared to something or somebody.

           Example: This train is running behind schedule.

           3.   Used to indicate support of somebody.

           Example: Her parents are behind her decision.


      Next to

           1.   Used to point out position right beside somebody or something.

           Example: Dia is sitting next to Ria.

           2.   Used to show order of somebody or something.

           Example: Next to Math my favorite subject is Science.



           1.   Used to indicate one end or side of something or somebody to other.

           Example: The thief got in through the back door.

           2.   Used to point out something from the other side of the objector substance.

           Example: I could not see the road clearly through the fog.

           3.   Used to indicate any activity or situation from beginning to the end.

           Example: Small children cannot sit through a concert.

           4.   Used to show passing of any kind of barrier.

           Example: I have got through the NET exam.

           5.   Used to show means or reason of something.

           Example: You can clear this exam only through hard work.



           1.   Used to indicate the place where something or somebody starts or begins.

           Example: Ayush took out a big chocolate from his pocket.

           2.   Used to show the starting or beginning time when something was first made or existed.

           Example: We will go to school by bus from tomorrow.

           3.   Used to tell source of something.

           Example: This boy is from primary wing.

           4.   Used to show ingredient or material of which anything is made.

           Example: This cloth is made from bamboo silk.

           5.   Used to indicate cause of something.

           Example: The old man died from heart attack.


      In front of

      Used to indicate position just ahead of something or somebody.

      Example: Dia is sitting in front of Ria.



      Formal term of “on” is upon.

      Example: She is wearing a red hat upon her head.


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