Plants are important part of nature. They can live on land and in
Plants are very useful to us and we get many
things from plant such as food, wood, paper etc. Most of our
food that we eat comes from plants for example -fruits, vegetables, cereals, pulses etc. We eat roots, leaves, stems, flowers and fruits
Plants have different parts. Each part serves different functions that
help the plant survive.
Main parts of plants:-
Roots lies below the surface of the soil and hold the plant firmly in
place. Its main function is to absorb water and nutrients for the plant. It
store food and nutrients and provide support to the plant. Roots of many plants are eaten as food such as beetroot, radish, carrot
Stem can be green or brown and can be thin or thick. It holds the
It carries water and minerals from the roots to
the leaves and takes the food back down the plant to be distributed and stored.
It supports the branches, leaves, flowers and fruits and connects them with the
roots. Stems of many plants are eaten as food such as potato, ginger etc.
Leaf is a flattened structure of plant which is typically green and
blade-like, that is attached to a stem. Leaves are of different shapes, sizes
and texture. Some leaves are wide and hairy whereas some leaves are small and
shaped like needles. Green leaves prepare food for plant through the process of
photosynthesis that’s why leaves are called food factory of plants. In the
process of photosynthesis leaf prepare food material in the presence of
sunlight, water, carbon dioxide and green pigment called chlorophyll present in
the leaf. There are large number of minute openings present on the leaves,
called stomata, through which gaseous exchange takes place between the
atmosphere and the plant body. Non green plants such as mushroom do not prepare
their food. Leaves of many plants are eaten as food such as spinach, lettuce,
Flowers are the most attractive part of a plant. Each flower types
have a different physical structure, colour and scent from those of other
flower type plants. Petals and the flowers smell attract insects and bees to
pollinate the flower.
Sweet smelling flowers petals are used for making perfumes. Flowers are widely
used for decoration and for making garlands. Some of the common flowers are
lotus, rose, marigold, jasmine, sunflower, hibiscus etc. Flowers that we eat are broccoli and cauliflower.
The fruit is a fleshy or dry ripened part of a plant, enclosing the
seed or seeds.
Some of the fruits that we eat are orange, mango,
apple, grapes, etc.
The hard part inside the fruit is
called seed. Most plants grow from seeds. Some fruit seeds we eat are
pomegranate, banana, fig, guava, kiwi, grapes etc. We do not eat seed of apple,
chikoo and many other fruits.
Plants are living organism and need food for growth. Plants prepare
their own food. The necessary ingredients plants need to make their food are:-
Sunlight – Plants leaves absorb
sunlight as required by the plant. Some plants need more sunlight and some need
less. There are plants that need shade as they require very limited amount of
Sufficient water – Adequate water is
required for the healthy growth of plants. Too much or too little water will
harm the plants and plant may die. Plant absorbs water by roots. The amount of
water needed varies between all types of plants.
Adequate air and
temperature – Plants take in carbon
dioxide through leaves and gives out oxygen in the process of photosynthesis. The
plants should be around little wind to help sustain their structural
Rich soil - Plants derive nutrients or minerals that
they need from the soil where they are planted. These minerals are taken in by
Space– Plants need sufficient space to grow and
expand their roots to bind them to the ground. Overcrowded plants are more
likely to die.