Topic outline

    • Plants


      Plants are important part of nature. They can live on land and in water. Plants are very useful to us and we get many things from plant such as food, wood, paper etc. Most of our food that we eat comes from plants for example -fruits, vegetables, cereals, pulses etc. We eat roots, leaves, stems, flowers and fruits of plants.


      Plants have different parts. Each part serves different functions that help the plant survive.


      Main parts of plants:-


      Roots lies below the surface of the soil and hold the plant firmly in place. Its main function is to absorb water and nutrients for the plant. It store food and nutrients and provide support to the plant. Roots of many plants are eaten as food such as beetroot, radish, carrot etc.



      Stem can be green or brown and can be thin or thick. It holds the plant upright. It carries water and minerals from the roots to the leaves and takes the food back down the plant to be distributed and stored. It supports the branches, leaves, flowers and fruits and connects them with the roots. Stems of many plants are eaten as food such as potato, ginger etc.



      Leaf is a flattened structure of plant which is typically green and blade-like, that is attached to a stem. Leaves are of different shapes, sizes and texture. Some leaves are wide and hairy whereas some leaves are small and shaped like needles. Green leaves prepare food for plant through the process of photosynthesis that’s why leaves are called food factory of plants. In the process of photosynthesis leaf prepare food material in the presence of sunlight, water, carbon dioxide and green pigment called chlorophyll present in the leaf. There are large number of minute openings present on the leaves, called stomata, through which gaseous exchange takes place between the atmosphere and the plant body. Non green plants such as mushroom do not prepare their food. Leaves of many plants are eaten as food such as spinach, lettuce, cabbage etc.




      Flowers are the most attractive part of a plant. Each flower types have a different physical structure, colour and scent from those of other flower type plants. Petals and the flowers smell attract insects and bees to pollinate the flower. Sweet smelling flowers petals are used for making perfumes. Flowers are widely used for decoration and for making garlands. Some of the common flowers are lotus, rose, marigold, jasmine, sunflower, hibiscus etc. Flowers that we eat are broccoli and cauliflower.



      The fruit is a fleshy or dry ripened part of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds. Some of the fruits that we eat are orange, mango, apple, grapes, etc.



      The hard part inside the fruit is called seed. Most plants grow from seeds. Some fruit seeds we eat are pomegranate, banana, fig, guava, kiwi, grapes etc. We do not eat seed of apple, chikoo and many other fruits.



      Plant Needs

      Plants are living organism and need food for growth. Plants prepare their own food. The necessary ingredients plants need to make their food are:-


      Sunlight – Plants leaves absorb sunlight as required by the plant. Some plants need more sunlight and some need less. There are plants that need shade as they require very limited amount of sunlight.


      Sufficient water – Adequate water is required for the healthy growth of plants. Too much or too little water will harm the plants and plant may die. Plant absorbs water by roots. The amount of water needed varies between all types of plants.


      Adequate air and temperature – Plants take in carbon dioxide through leaves and gives out oxygen in the process of photosynthesis. The plants should be around little wind to help sustain their structural components.


      Rich soil - Plants derive nutrients or minerals that they need from the soil where they are planted. These minerals are taken in by the roots.

      Space Plants need sufficient space to grow and expand their roots to bind them to the ground. Overcrowded plants are more likely to die.


    • Download to practice offline.