Topic outline

    • People as Resource 

      Q35. State the characteristics of the unorganised sector.
      Describe the main features of unorganised sector.

      Ans. Characteristics of the unorganised sector

      1. Employment in this sector is characterised by irregular and low income. 
      2. In this sector there is an absence of basic facilities like maternity leave, childcare and other social security systems.


      Q36. Explain the employment structure existing in the agriculture sector.

      Ans. Existing employment structure in the agriculture sector

      1. The employment structure is characterized by self-employment in the primary sector. 
      2. The whole family contributes in the field even though not everybody is really needed. So there is disguised unemployment in the agriculture sector.

      Q37. What do you understand by 'people as a resource'?

      Ans. 'People as Resource' is a way of referring to a country’s working people in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities. Population becomes human capital when there is investment made in the form of education, training and medical care. In fact, human capital is the stock of skill and productive knowledge embodied in them.


      Q38. Write a short note on eleventh five year plan?

      Ans. The eleventh plan endeavored to increase the enrolment in higher education of the 18 to 23 years age group to 15% by 2011-12. The strategy focuses on increasing access, quality, adoption of states-specific curriculum modification, vocationalisation and networking on the use of information technology. The plan also focuses on distant education, convergence of formal, non-formal, distant and IT education institutions. 


      Q39. What are the various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector?
      What are the main sectors of the economy?

      Ans. The various activities have been classified into three main sectors i.e., primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary sector includes agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming, mining, and quarrying. Manufacturing is included in the secondary sector. Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, services, insurance etc. are included in the tertiary sector.


      Q40. How can population become an asset?
      How can a large population be turned into an asset?
      How can investment be made in humans?
      Suggest any three ways to turn a large population into a productive asset.

      Ans. A large population can be turned into a productive asset by investment in human capital 

      1. By spending resources on education and health for all.
      2. By training of industrial and agricultural workers in the use of modern technology.
      3. By useful scientific researches and so on.


      Q41. Write a note on Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
      What do you understand by Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan?
      What is the basic aim of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan?

      Ans. Sarva Siksha Abhiyan

      1. Sarva Siksha Abhiyan is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all children in the age group of six to fourteen years.
      2. It is a time bound initiative of the central government, in partnership with the states, the local government and the community for achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education.

      Q42. Why is educated unemployed, a peculiar problem of India?

      Ans. In case of India educated unemployment has become a common phenomenon. Many youth with matriculation, graduation and post-graduation degrees are not able to find job. A study showed that unemployment of graduate and post-graduate has increased faster than among matriculates. A paradoxical manpower situation is witnessed as surplus of manpower in certain categories coexist with shortage of manpower in others.


      Q43. Write a note on the health status of the population in India.

      Ans. Over the last five decades India has built up a vast health infrastructure and has developed man power required at primary, secondary and tertiary sector in Government as well as in the private sector. These measures adopted have increased the life expectancy to over 65 years in 2011. Infant mortality rate (IMR) has come down from 147 in 1951 to 47 in 2010. Crude birth rates have dropped to 22.1 and death rates to 7 within the same duration of time.


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