Ans. Role of cooperatives in food security
The cooperatives are also playing an important role in food security in India especially in the southern and western parts of the country. The cooperative societies set up shops to sell low priced goods to poor people. For example, out of all fair price shops running in Tamil Nadu, around 94 per cent are being run by the cooperatives. In Delhi, Mother Dairy is making strides in provision of milk and vegetables to the consumers at controlled rate decided by Government of Delhi. Amul is another success story of cooperatives in milk and milk products from Gujarat. It has brought about the White Revolution in the country. These are a few examples of many more cooperatives running in different parts of the country ensuring food security of different sections of society.
Ans. Although a large section of people suffer from food and nutrition insecurity in India, the worst affected groups are:
Ans. (a) Minimum support price - The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in states where there is surplus production. The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their crops. This price is called Minimum Support Price.
(b) Buffer stock - Buffer Stock is the stock of food grains, namely wheat and rice procured by the government through Food Corporation of India (FCI). This is done to distribute food grains in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price also known as Issue Price. This also helps resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during the periods of calamity.
(c) Issue price – Government distributes food grains from buffer stock in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price. This subsidized price is known as Issue Price.
(d) Fair price shops - The food procured by the FCI is distributed through government regulated ration shops among the poorer section of the society. Ration shops also known as Fair Price Shops keep stock of food grains, sugar, kerosene oil for cooking. These items are sold to people at a price lower than the market price.
Ans. To ensure availability of food to all sections of the society the Indian government carefully designed food security system, which is composed of two components: (a) buffer stock and (b) public distribution system. In addition to PDS, various poverty alleviation programmes were also started which comprised a component of food security. Some of these programmes are: Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); Food-for-Work (FFW); Mid-Day Meals; Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) etc.
Two schemes launched by the government to provide food security to the poor are:
Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) –
National Food for Work Programme
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