Topic outline

    • Poverty as a Challenge

      Q30. Why is the concept of poverty being broadened into human poverty?

      Ans. The concept of poverty is being broadened into human poverty because analysis of poverty is becoming rich through a variety of new concepts like social exclusion. A large number of people may have been able to feed themselves. But they do not have education or shelter or health care or job security or self-confidence. They are not free from caste and gender discrimination. The practice of child labour is still common.


      Q31. What does social exclusion means?

      Ans. According to this concept, poverty must be seen in terms of the poor having to live only in a poor surrounding with other poor people, excluded from enjoying social equality of better - off people in better surroundings. Social exclusion can be both a cause as well as a consequence of poverty in the usual sense. Broadly, it is a process through which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that others (their “betters”) enjoy.


      Q32. How are socio cultural and economic factors responsible for poverty?

      Ans. Many other socio-cultural and economic factors also are responsible for poverty. In order to fulfill social obligations and observe religious ceremonies, people in India, including the very poor, spend a lot of money. Small farmers need money to buy agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizer, pesticides etc. Since poor people hardly have any savings, they borrow. Unable to repay because of poverty, they become victims of indebtedness. So the high level of indebtedness is both the cause and effect of poverty.


      Q33. Write the full form of the following:

      Ans. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)

      National Food for Work Programme (NFWP)

      Prime Minister Rozgar Yozana (PMRY)

      Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP)

      Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)

      Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana (PMGY)

      Antyodaya Anna Yozana (AAY)


      Q34. State the dimensions of poverty.

      Ans. The various dimensions of poverty are: 

      1. It means hunger and lack of shelter.
      2. It also is a situation in which parents are not able to send their children to school or a situation where sick people cannot afford treatment.
      3. It means lack of clean water and sanitation facilities.
      4. It also means lack of a regular job at a minimum decent level.


      Q35. ‘Poverty line may vary with time and place’. Explain the statement with example.

      Ans. A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given “minimum level” necessary to fulfill basic needs. What is necessary to satisfy basic needs is different at different times and in different countries. Therefore, poverty line may vary with time and place. Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms. For example, a person not having a car in the United States may be considered poor. In India, owning of a car is still considered a luxury. 


      Q36. Describe poverty trends in India since 1973?

      Ans. There is substantial decline in poverty ratios in India from about 55 per cent in 1973 to 30 per cent in 2009-10. The proportion of people below poverty line further came down to about 26 per cent in 2000. If the trend continues, people below poverty line may come down to less than 20 per cent in the next few years. Although the percentage of people living under poverty declined in the earlier two decades (1973– 1993), the number of poor remained stable around 320 million for a fairly long period. The latest estimates indicate a significant reduction in the number of poor to about 27% by 2004-05.

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