Features of India
Q38. What are the features of lesser Himalayas?
Describe the features of Himachal or lesser Himalayas.
The range lying to the south of the Himadri forms the most rugged mountain
system and is known as Himachal or lesser Himalaya.
The ranges are mainly composed of highly
compressed and altered rocks.
The altitude varies between 3,700 and 4,500
metres and the average width is of 50 Km.
The Pir Panjal range is the longest and the
most important range.
This range consists of the famous valley of
Kashmir, the Kangra and Kullu Valley in Himachal Pradesh. This region is well
known for its hill stations.
Q39. Discuss the main features of the Purvachal ranges of the
Give main characteristics of Purvanchal.
Which part of India is called Purvachal?
The Brahmaputra marks the eastern most boundary of the Himalayas. Beyond the
Dihang gorge, the Himalayas bend sharply to the south and spread along the
eastern boundary of India. They are known as the Purvachal or the Eastern hills
These hills running through the
north-eastern states are mostly composed of strong sandstones which are
Covered with dense forests, they mostly run
as parallel ranges and valleys.
The Purvachal comprises the Patkai
hills, the Naga hills, Manipur hills and the Mizo hills.
Q40. Describe how the Himalayas were formed.
Ans. Formation of Himalayas
The Gondwana land included India,
Australia, South Africa, South America and Antarctica as one single land mass.
The convectional currents split the crust
into a number of pieces, thus leading to the drifting of the Indo-Australian
plate after being separated from the Gondwana land, towards north.
The northward drift resulted in the
collision of the plate with the much larger Eurasian Plate.
Due to this collision, the sedimentary
rocks which were accumulated in the geosyncline known as the Tethys were folded
to form the mountain system of western Asia and Himalaya.
Q41. What are Shiwaliks? Mention any two characteristics of it.
What are Characteristics of Shiwaliks?
Explain the three major features of the Shiwaliks.
Ans. The outer most range of the Himalayas is called
They extend over a width of 10-50 Km and
have an altitude varying between 900 and 1100 metres.
These ranges are composed of unconsolidated
sediments brought down by rivers from the main Himalayan ranges located farther
These valleys are covered with thick gravel
The longitudinal valley lying between
lesser Himalaya and the Shiwaliks are known as Duns. Dehra Dun, Kotli Dun and
Patli Dun are some of the well-known Duns.
Q42. Differentiate between western and eastern coastal plains.
Ans. Difference between western and eastern coastal
Western Coastal Plains
Eastern Coastal Plains
1. The western coastal plain lies between
the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea.
1. The eastern coastal plain lies between
the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal.
2. It consists of three sections. The
northern part of the coast is called the Konkan (Mumbai – Goa), the central
stretch is called the Kannad Plain while the southern stretch is referred to
as the Malabar coast.
2. It consists of two sections. In the
northern part, it is referred to as the Northern Circar, while the southern
part is known as the Coromandel Coast.
3. This coastal plain is narrow.
3. This coastal plain is wide.
Q43. Write a short note on Coastal Plains.
Describe any three features of coastal plains of India.
Ans. Coastal Plains
The Peninsular plateau is flanked by
stretch of narrow coastal strips, running along the Arabian Sea on the west and
the Bay of Bengal on the east.
The western coast, sandwiched between the
Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, is a narrow plain. It consists of three
sections. The northern part of the coast is called the Konkan (Mumbai – Goa),
the central stretch is called the Kannad Plain while the southern stretch is
referred to as the Malabar coast.
The plains along the Bay of Bengal are wide
and level. In the northern part, it is referred to as the Northern Circar,
while the southern part is known as the Coromandel Coast. Large rivers such as
the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri have formed extensive
delta on this coast. Lake Chilika is an important feature along the eastern