Topic outline

    • The Indian Constitution

      Q27. Explain Right to Equality.
      What is the significance of the Right to Equality?
      What is the fundamental Right to Equality?
      What are the main features of ‘Right to equality’?

      Ans. Right to Equality

                               i.        All persons are equal before the law. This means that all persons shall be equally protected by the laws of the country.

                              ii.        It also states that no citizen can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, caste or sex.

                             iii.        Every person has access to all public places including playgrounds, hotels, shops etc.

                             iv.        The State cannot discriminate against anyone in matters of employment.

               Q28. Which Fundamental Rights will the following situations violate?
                                 i.        If a 13-year old child is working in a factory manufacturing carpets.
                                ii.        If a politician in one state decides to not allow labourers from other states to work in his state.
                               iii.        If a group of people are not given permission to open a Telugu-medium school in Kerala.
                              iv.        If the government decides not to promote an officer of the armed forces for being a woman.


                                i.        Right against Exploitation

                               ii.        Right to Freedom

                              iii.        Cultural and Educational Rights

                              iv.        Right to Equality


      Q29. How was the Indian Constitution made?
      How constitution of India is formed?

      Ans. The long experience of authoritarian rule under the colonial state convinced Indians that free India should be a democracy in which everyone should be treated equally and be allowed to participate in government. What remained to be done then was to work out the ways in which a democratic government would be set up in India and the rules that would determine its functioning. This was done not by one person but by a group of around 300 people who became members of the Constituent Assembly in 1946 and who met periodically for the next three years to write India’s Constitution. Between December 1946 and November 1949, the Constituent Assembly drafted a constitution for independent India.

      Q30. What is the importance of constitution?

      Ans. Importance of constitution

                               i.        A Constitution helps serve as a set of rules and principles that all persons in a country can agree upon as the basis of the way in which they want the country to be governed.

                              ii.        The Constitution often lays down rules that guard against this misuse of authority by our political leaders.

                             iii.        Constitution ensures that a dominant group does not use its power against other, less powerful people or groups.

                             iv.        The Constitution helps to protect us against certain decisions that we might take that could have an adverse effect on the larger principles that the country believes in.


      Q31. Write a brief note on the struggle for freedom in Nepal.

      Ans. The country of Nepal has witnessed several people’s struggles for democracy. There was a people’s struggle in 1990 that established democracy that lasted for 12 years until 2002. In October 2002, King Gyanendra, citing the Maoist uprising in the countryside as his reason, began taking over different aspects of the government with the army’s assistance. The King then finally took over as the head of government in February 2005. In November 2005, the Maoists joined other political parties to sign a 12-point agreement. This agreement signalled to the larger public an imminent return to democracy and peace. In 2006, this people’s movement for democracy began gaining immense force. It repeatedly refused the small concessions that the King made and finally in April 2006 the King restored the Third Parliament and asked the political parties to form a government. In 2007, Nepal adopted an interim Constitution.

      Q32. In each of the following situations, identify the minority. Write one reason why you think it is
      important to respect the views of the minority in each of these situations.
      (a) In a school with 30 teachers, 20 of them are male.
      (b) In a city, 5 per cent of the population are Buddhists.
      (c) In a factory mess for all employees, 80 per cent are vegetarians.
      (d) In a class of 50 students, 40 belong to more well-off families.


      a. Female teachers are in the minority - It is important to respect the views of the minority so that they do not feel left out or underpowered by majority.

      b. Buddhists are in the minority - It is important to respect the views of the minority because every individual has the right to follow the religion of his choice.

      c. Non – vegetarians are in the minority – It is important to respect the views of the minority because the food a person eats is his personal wish and so he should have the freedom to eat what he wants.

      d. The under privileged are in minority – It is important to respect the views of the minority because citizens cannot be discriminated on the bases rich or poor.

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