and Social Justice
Q15. Why are advanced countries relocating the toxic and
hazardous industries to developing countries?
Ans. Advanced countries are relocating the toxic and
hazardous industries to developing countries to take advantage of the weaker
laws in these countries and keep their own countries safe. South Asian
countries – particularly India, Bangladesh and Pakistan – play hosts for
industries producing pesticides, asbestos or processing zinc and lead.
Q16. How can the government meet the challenges where everyone can
benefit from the clean environment?
Ans. One way this can be done is to gradually move to
cleaner technologies and processes in factories. The government has to
encourage and support factories to do this. It will need to fine those who
pollute. This will ensure that the workers livelihoods are protected and both
workers and communities living around the factories enjoy a safe environment.
Q17. Point out the role of government and citizens in
establishing a state of law and social justice?
A major role of the government is to control the activities of private
companies by making, enforcing and upholding laws so as to prevent unfair
practices and ensure social justice. While the government has a
leading role in this respect, people can exert pressure so that both private
companies and the government act in the interests of society.
Q18. A ‘clean environment is a public facility.’ Can you explain
Ans. The environment is something that people over
generations will share, and it could not be destroyed merely for industrial
development. The courts also gave a number of judgments upholding the right to
a healthy environment as intrinsic to the Fundamental Right to Life. It
includes the right to the enjoyment of pollution-free water and air for full
enjoyment of life.
Q19. How did Bhopal gas tragedy occur?
Ans. The world’s worst industrial tragedy took place
in Bhopal 24 years ago. Union Carbide (UC) an American company had a factory in
the city in which it produced pesticides. At midnight on 2 December 1984
methyl-isocyanite (MIC) - a highly poisonous gas - started leaking from this UC
three days, more than 8,000 people were dead. Hundreds of thousands were maimed.
Q20. What are the reasons for the sharp differences in safety
standards between the two Union carbide factories in the USA and India?
Ans. In India, one worker can easily replace another.
Since there is so much unemployment, there are many workers who are willing to
work in unsafe conditions in return for a wage. Making use of the
workers’ vulnerability, employers ignore safety in workplaces. Thus, there were
the sharp differences in safety standards between the two Union carbide
factories in the USA and India.
Q21. How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is
fair? Give two examples to support your answer.
To ensure that workers are not underpaid, or are paid fairly, there is a law on
minimum wages. A worker has to be paid not less than the minimum wage by the
employer. There are also laws that protect the interests of producers and
consumers in the market. These help ensure that the relations between these
three parties – the worker, consumer and producer – are governed in a manner
that is not exploitative.
Q22. Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got
No, the victims of Bhopal gas tragedy did not get justice. The company which
owned this factory- union carbide refused to accept the responsibility of its
actions. They got away by paying a small compensation to the survivors. Most of
those exposed to the poison gas came from poor, working-class families, of
which nearly 50,000 people are today too sick to work. Among those who
survived, many developed severe respiratory disorders, eye problems and other
disorders. Children developed peculiar abnormalities.
Q23. Can you think of other ways in which the environment can be
protected? Discuss in class.
Ans. Ways to protect environment
Use reusable bags
Print as little as necessary
Use a reusable beverage containers
Avoid taking cars or carpool when possible