Topic outline

    • The Indian Constitution

      Q18. What would happen if there were no restrictions on the power of elected representatives?

      Ans. If there were no restrictions on the power of elected representatives the leaders might misuse the powers given to them. Misuse of authority can result in gross injustice. Thus, in democratic societies, the Constitution often lays down rules that guard against this misuse of authority by our political leaders.


      Q19. What is Constitutional Monarchy?

      Ans. A system of government in which a country is ruled by a king and queen whose power is limited by a constitution.

      Example: Until quite recently, Nepal was a monarchy. The previous Constitution of Nepal, which had been adopted in 1990, reflected the fact that the final authority rested with the King.

      Q20. Mention the key features of the Indian Constitution.

      Ans. The key features of the Indian constitution are:-

                                   i.        Federalism

                                  ii.        Parliamentary Form of Government

                                 iii.        Separation of Powers

                                 iv.        Fundamental Rights

                                  v.        Secularism


      Q21. State the six Fundamentals Rights in the Indian Constitution.

      Ans. The Fundamental Rights in the Indian Constitution include:

                                  i.        Right to Equality

                                 ii.        Right to Freedom

                                iii.        Right against Exploitation

                                iv.        Right to Freedom of Religion

                                v.        Cultural and Educational Rights

                               vi.        Right to Constitutional Remedies

      Q22. What do you mean by tyranny of majority?

      Ans. Tyranny of the majority refers to unhealthy situations where a majority continuously enforces decisions that exclude minorities and go against their interests. Every society is prone to this tyranny of the majority. The Constitution usually contains rules that ensure that minorities are not excluded from anything that is routinely available to the majority. Constitution is precisely to prevent this tyranny or domination by the majority of a minority.


      Q23. Discuss the difference between State and Government.

      Ans. ‘Government’ is responsible for administering and enforcing laws. The government can change with elections. The State on the other hand refers to a political institution that represents a sovereign people who occupy a definite territory. Example - the Indian State, the Nepali State etc. The Indian State has a democratic form of government. The government (or the executive) is one part of the State. The State refers to more than just the government and cannot be used interchangeably with it.


      Q24. What are the functions of the three main organs of the government?
      What are the three organs of government?
      Explain the functions of organs of government.

      Ans. According to the Constitution, there are three organs of government. These are the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.

                                 i.        The legislature refers to our elected representatives.

                                ii.        The executive is a smaller group of people who are responsible for implementing laws and running the government.

                               iii.        The judiciary refers to the system of courts in this country.

      Q25. What are the factors the drafting committee had to take into consideration while drafting the constitution?

      Ans. The country was made up of several different communities who spoke different languages, belonged to different religions, and had distinct cultures. Also, when the Constitution was being written, India was going through considerable turmoil. The partition of the country into India and Pakistan was imminent, some of the Princely States remained undecided about their future, and the socio-economic condition of the vast mass of people appeared dismal. All of these issues played on the minds of the members of the Constituent Assembly as they drafted the Constitution.


      Q26. Why does a democratic country need a Constitution?

      Ans. A democratic country needs a Constitution because it serves several purposes.

                                i.        First, it lays out certain ideals that form the basis of the kind of country that we as citizens aspire to live in.

                               ii.        The second important purpose of a Constitution is to define the nature of a country’s political system.

                              iii.        The third significant reason why we need a Constitution is to save us from ourselves. What is meant by this is that we might at times feel strongly about an issue that might go against our larger interests and the Constitution helps us guard against this.


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