Ans. The three categories of Council of Ministers are:
i. The Cabinet Ministers: The Cabinet Ministers hold important portfolios like Home, Defence, Finance, External Affairs, Railways, etc.
ii. Ministers of State: They may or may not hold an independent charge of any portfolio.
iii. Deputy Ministers: They assist the Cabinet Ministers and the Council of Ministers.
Ans. With the coming of independence, we were going to be citizens of a free country. This did not mean that the government could do what it felt like, it meant that the government had to be sensitive to people’s needs and demands. The dreams and aspirations of the freedom struggle were made concrete in the Constitution of independent India that laid down the principle of universal adult franchise, i.e. that all adult citizens of the country have the right to vote.
Ans. The Parliament in our system has immense powers because it is the representative of the people. Elections to the Parliament are held in a similar manner as they are for the state legislature. The Lok Sabha is usually elected once every five years. The country is divided into numerous constituencies. Each of these constituencies elects one person to the Parliament. The candidates who contest elections usually belong to different political parties. Once elected, these candidates become Members of Parliament or MPs. These MPs together make up the Parliament.
Ans. Our national movement supported the idea that all adults have a right to vote because in our struggle for independence people from all walks of life participated. They came from various backgrounds and were united in their aspirations for a free, equal and independent nation where decision-making would be in the hands of the people. The only way in which this would be possible would be through elections – allowing common people a vantage point from where they can consent to and approve of a government that “they” have a right to choose.
Ans. Rajya Sabha
i. The Rajya Sabha functions primarily as the representative of the states of India in the Parliament.
ii. The Rajya Sabha can also initiate legislation and a bill is required to pass through the Rajya Sabha in order to become a law. It, therefore, has an important role of reviewing and altering the laws initiated by the Lok Sabha.
iii. The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of various states.
iv. There are 233 elected members plus 12 members nominated by the President.
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