Trade to Territory
Q56. Write a note on Tipu Sultan—The ‘Tiger of Mysore’.
Ans. Tipu Sultan—The ‘Tiger of Mysore’
Tipu Sultan, son of Haidar Ali (ruled from
1782 to 1799) was known as Tiger of Mysore’. Mysore controlled
the profitable trade of the Malabar coast where the Company purchased pepper
In 1785 Tipu Sultan stopped the export of
sandalwood, pepper and cardamom through the ports of his kingdom, and
disallowed local merchants from trading with the Company.
He also established a close relationship
with the French in India, and modernized his army with their help.
In the last – the Battle of Seringapatam,
the Company ultimately win a victory. Tipu Sultan was killed defending his
Q57. What was the main cause of the Battle of Plassey?
What led to the Battle of Plassey and what was the result?
Ans. Sirajuddaulah asked the Company to stop meddling
in the political affairs of his dominion, stop fortification, and pay the
revenues. After negotiations failed, the Nawab marched with 30,000 soldiers to
the English factory at Kassimbazar, captured the Company officials, locked the
warehouse, disarmed all Englishmen, and blockaded English ships. Then he
marched to Calcutta to establish control over the Company’s fort there. On
hearing the news of the fall of Calcutta, Company officials in Madras sent
forces under the command of Robert Clive, reinforced by naval fleets. Prolonged
negotiations with the Nawab followed. Finally, in 1757, Robert Clive led the
Company’s army against Sirajuddaulah at Plassey. The Battle of Plassey was the
first major victory the Company won in India.
Q58. What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs
and the East India Company?
Ans. The areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs
and the East India Company were:
The nawabs refused to grant the Company
concessions, demanded large tributes for the Company’s right to trade, denied
it any right to mint coins, and stopped it from extending its fortifications.
They claimed that the Company was depriving
the Bengal government of huge amounts of revenue and undermining the authority
of the nawab by refusing to pay taxes, writing disrespectful letters, and trying
to humiliate the nawab and his officials.
The Company on its part declared that the
unjust demands of the local officials were ruining the trade of the Company,
and trade could flourish only if the duties were removed.
Q59. In what way was the administration of the Company different
from that of Indian rulers?
Administration of the Company
territories were broadly divided into administrative units called Presidencies.
There were three Presidencies: Bengal, Madras and Bombay. Each was ruled by a Governor.
The supreme head of the administration was the Governor-General. From
1772 a new system of justice was established.
district was to have two courts – a criminal court (faujdari adalat ) and a
civil court (diwani adalat ). Under the Regulating Act of 1773, a
new Supreme Court was established, while a court of appeal – the Sadar Nizamat
– was also set up at Calcutta.
of Indian rulers
principal figure in an Indian district was the Collector. As the title suggests,
his main job was to collect revenue and taxes and maintain law and order in his
district with the help of judges, police officers and darogas.
Q60. Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of
the Company’s army.
Several changes occurred in the composition of the Company’s army:
The East India Company started recruiting
peasants into their armies and training them as professional soldiers, which
came to be known as the sepoy army.
As warfare technology changed from the 1820s,
the cavalry requirements of the Company’s army declined.
The soldiers of the Company’s army had to
keep pace with changing military requirements and its infantry regiments now
became more important.
In the early nineteenth century the British
began to develop a uniform military culture. Soldiers were increasingly
subjected to European-style training, drill and discipline that regulated their
life far more than before.
Q61. How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India
Finally, in 1765 the Mughal emperor appointed the Company as the Diwan of the
provinces of Bengal. The assumption of Diwani benefited the East India Company
in several ways.
The Diwani allowed the Company to use the
vast revenue resources of Bengal.
From the early eighteenth century its trade
with India had expanded. But it had to buy most of the goods in India with gold
and silver imported from Britain. This was because at this time Britain had no
goods to sell in India. The outflow of gold from Britain slowed after the
Battle of Plassey, and entirely stopped after the assumption of Diwani.
Now revenues from India could finance
Company expenses. These revenues could be used to purchase cotton and silk textiles
in India, maintain Company troops, and meet the cost of building the Company
fort and offices at Calcutta.
Q62. How did the East India Company begin trade in Bengal?
East India Company begin trade in Bengal
The first English factory was set up on the
banks of the river Hugli in 1651. This was the base from which the Company’s
traders, known at that time as “factors”, operated. The factory had a warehouse
where goods for export were stored, and it had offices where Company officials
As trade expanded, the Company persuaded
merchants and traders to come and settle near the factory. By 1696 it began
building a fort around the settlement.
Two years later it bribed Mughal officials
into giving the Company zamindari rights over three villages. One of these was
Kalikata, which later grew into the city of Calcutta or Kolkata as it is known
today. It also persuaded the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb to issue a farman
granting the Company the right to trade duty free.