Trade to Territory
Q49. What is the policy of paramountcy?
Who initiated the policy of 'paramountcy'? What did the company
claim through this policy?
What was the objective behind the Company’s new policy of ‘paramountcy’?
Under Lord Hastings a new policy of “paramountcy” was initiated. Now the Company
claimed that its authority was paramount or supreme, hence its power was
greater than that of Indian states. In order to protect its interests it was
justified in annexing or threatening to annex any Indian kingdom. This view
continued to guide later British policies as well.
Q50. Write a short note on Warren Hastings.
Ans. Warren Hastings
Warren Hastings (Governor-General from 1773
to 1785) was one of the many important figures who played a significant role in
the expansion of Company power.
By his time the Company had acquired power
not only in Bengal, but also in Bombay and Madras.
Warren Hastings, the first
Governor-General, introduced several administrative reforms, notably in the
sphere of justice.
Q51. Explain the system of “subsidiary alliance”.
to the terms of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their
independent armed forces. They were to be protected by the Company, but had to
pay for the “subsidiary forces” that the Company was supposed to maintain for
the purpose of this protection. If the Indian rulers failed to make the
payment, then part of their territory was taken away as penalty. The
states which had to lose their territories on this ground were Awadh and
Q52. What was Lord Dalhousie’s Doctrine of Lapse?
Explain Doctrine of Lapse.
Ans. Doctrine of Lapse
Lord Dalhousie who was the Governor-General
devised a policy that came to be known as the Doctrine of Lapse.
The doctrine declared that if an Indian
ruler died without a male heir his kingdom would “lapse”, that is, become part
of Company territory.
One kingdom after another was annexed
simply by applying this doctrine: Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur
(1852), Nagpur (1853) and Jhansi (1854).
Q53. Give an account of different European trading companies
besides the British East India Company that entered the Eastern markets.
Ans. By the time the first English ships sailed down
the west coast of Africa, round the Cape of Good Hope, and crossed the Indian
Ocean, the Portuguese had already established their presence in the western
coast of India, and had their base in Goa. In fact, it was Vascoda Gama, a
Portuguese explorer, who had discovered this sea route to India in 1498. By the
early seventeenth century, the Dutch too were exploring the possibilities of
trade in the Indian Ocean. Soon the French traders arrived on the scene.
Q54. Give a brief description of all the three Anglo-Maratha
Ans. The Marathas were subdued in a series of wars.
In the first war that ended in 1782 with
the Treaty of Salbai, there was no clear victor.
The Second Anglo- Maratha War (1803-05) was
fought on different fronts, resulting in the British gaining Orissa and the
territories north of the Yamuna River including Agra and Delhi.
Finally, the Third Anglo-Maratha War of
1817-19 crushed Maratha power. The Peshwa was removed and sent away to Bithur
near Kanpur with a pension. The Company now had complete control over the
territories south of the Vindhyas.
Q55. What administrative reformations were brought in the sphere
Ans. From 1772 a new system of justice was
established. Each district was to have two courts – a criminal court (faujdari
adalat ) and a civil court (diwani adalat ). Maulvis and Hindu pandits
interpreted Indian laws for the European district collectors who presided over
civil courts. The criminal courts were still under a qazi and a mufti but under
the supervision of the collectors. In 1775 eleven pandits
were asked to compile a digest of Hindu laws. N.B. Halhed translated this digest
into English. By 1778 a code of Muslim laws was also compiled for the benefit
of European judges. Under the Regulating Act of 1773, a new Supreme Court was established,
while a court of appeal – the Sadar Nizamat Adalat – was also set up at