Q23. After Independence, why was there a reluctance to divide
the country on linguistic lines?
Ans. Back in
the 1920s, the Indian National Congress had promised that once the country won
independence, each major linguistic group would have its own province. However,
after independence the Congress did not take any steps to honour this promise. There
was a reason for this. India had been divided on the basis of religion. As a
result of the partition of India, more than a million people had been killed in
riots between Hindus and Muslims. Country could not afford further divisions on
the basis of language. Both Prime Minister Nehru and Deputy Prime Minister
Vallabhbhai Patel were against the creation of linguistic states.
Q24. What special privileges were offered to the poorest and
most disadvantaged Indians by the constitutions?
Ans. It offered special privileges for the
poorest and most disadvantaged Indians.
practice of untouchability was abolished.
temples, previously open to only the higher castes, were thrown open to all,
including the former untouchables.
percentage of seats in legislatures as well as jobs in government be reserved
for members of the lowest castes.
the former Untouchables, the adivasis or Scheduled Tribes were also granted
reservation in seats and jobs.
Q25. Under what circumstances a compromise was made with respect
Why a compromise was made with respect to language?
members believed that the English language should leave India with the British
rulers. Its place, they argued, should be taken by Hindi. However, those who
did not speak Hindi were of a different opinion. Speaking in the Assembly, T.T.
Krishnamachari conveyed “a warning on behalf of people of the South”, some of
whom threatened to separate from India if Hindi was imposed on them. A
compromise was finally arrived at: namely, that while Hindi would be the
“official language” of India, English would be used in the courts, the
services, and communications between one state and another.
Q26. Under what circumstances a new state of Andhra Pradesh came
How did Andhra Pradesh come into being?
Ans. The Kannada speakers, Malayalam
speakers, the Marathi speakers, had all looked forward to having their own
state. The strongest protests, however, came from the Telugu-speaking districts
of what was the Madras Presidency. When Nehru went to campaign there during the
general elections of 1952, he was met with black flags and slogans demanding
“We want Andhra”. In October of that year, a veteran Gandhian named Potti
Sriramulu went on a hunger fast demanding the formation of Andhra state to
protect the interests of Telugu speakers. As the fast went on, it attracted
much support. Hartals and bandhs were observed in many towns. On 15 December
1952, fifty-eight days into his fast, Potti Sriramulu died. The protests were so
widespread and intense that the central government was forced to give in to the
demand. Thus, on 1 October 1953, the new state of Andhra Pradesh came into
Q27. How was the economic development of India visualised in the
early decades after Independence?
Ans. The economic development of India in the early
decades after Independence:
In 1950, the government set up a Planning
Commission to help design and execute suitable policies for economic
There was a broad agreement on what was
called a “mixed economy” model. Here, both the State and the private sector
would play important and complementary roles in increasing production and
It was on Planning Commission to define
which industries should be initiated by the state and which by the market, how
to achieve a balance between the different regions and states.
In 1956, the Second Five Year Plan was
formulated. This focused strongly on the development of heavy industries such
as steel, and on the building of large dams.
These sectors would be under the control of
the State. This focus on heavy industry, and the effort at state regulation of
the economy was to guide economic policy for the next few decades.