Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947
Q49. What were the consequences of partition of Bengal?
What was the result for the partition of Bengal?
What were the effects of partition of Bengal?
of partition of Bengal
The partition of Bengal infuriated people all over India. All sections of the Congress – the Moderates and the Radicals, opposed it.
meetings and demonstrations were organised
and novel methods of mass protest developed.
The struggle that unfolded came to be known
as the Swadeshi movement, strongest in
Bengal but with echoes elsewhere too – in
deltaic Andhra for instance, it was known as
the Vandemataram Movement.
Q50. Under what circumstances did Mahatma Gandhi initiate Quit India
Why did Gandhi ji start Quit India Movement?
Why was the Quit India Movement started?
Write a short note on Quit India Movement.
Ans. In September
1939, after two years of Congress rule in the provinces, the Second World War
broke out. Critical of Hitler, Congress leaders were ready to support the
British war effort. But in return they wanted that India be granted
independence after the war. The British refused to concede the demand. The
Congress ministries resigned in protest. Mahatma Gandhi decided to
initiate a new phase of movement against the British in the middle of the Second
World War. The British must quit India immediately, he told them. To the people
he said, “do or die” in your effort to fight the British – but you must fight
Q51. What economic impact did the First World War have on India?
Ans. The First
World War altered the economic and political situation in India. It led to a
huge rise in the defence expenditure of the Government of India. The government
in turn increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits. Increased
military expenditure and the demands for war supplies led to a sharp rise in
prices which created great difficulties for the common people. On the other
hand, business groups reaped fabulous profits from the war. The war created a
demand for industrial goods (jute bags, cloth, rails) and caused a decline of
imports from other countries into India. So Indian industries expanded during
the war, and Indian business groups began to demand greater opportunities for
Q52. Explain the event of Dandi march.
Describe Gandhi march to Dandi.
Gandhiji declared that he would lead a
march to break the salt law.
According to this law, the state had a
monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt.
Gandhiji and his followers marched for over
240 miles from Sabarmati to the coastal town of Dandi where they broke the
government law by gathering natural salt found on the seashore, and boiling sea
water to produce salt.
Peasants, tribals and women participated in
large numbers. A business federation published a pamphlet on the salt issue.
The government tried to crush the movement
through brutal action against peaceful satyagrahis. Thousands were sent to
Q53. Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s
What reasons were responsible for the growth of dissatisfaction
amongst people against British rule in 1970's?
Ans. People were dissatisfied with British rule in
the 1870s and 1880s due to the following reasons:
The Arms Act was passed in 1878,
disallowing Indians from possessing arms.
In the same year the Vernacular Press Act
was also enacted in an effort to silence those who were critical of the
government. The Act allowed the government to confiscate the assets of
newspapers including their printing presses if the newspapers published
anything that was found “objectionable”.
In 1883, there was a furore over the
attempt by the government to introduce the Ilbert Bill. The bill provided for
the trial of British or European persons by Indians, and sought equality
between British and Indian judges in the country. But when white opposition
forced the government to withdraw the bill, Indians were enraged.
Q54. State the demands of the Congress made in its early years.
What were the demands of the congress in its early years?
Congress in the first twenty years was “moderate” in its objectives and
methods. During this period it made several demands.
The Congress demanded a greater voice for
Indians in the government and in administration.
It wanted the Legislative Councils to be
made more representative, given more power, and introduced in provinces where
It demanded that Indians be placed in high
positions in the government. For this purpose it called for civil service
examinations to be held in India as well, not just in London.
The demand for Indianisation of the
administration was part of a movement against racisim, since most important
jobs at the time were monopolised by white officials.
Other demands included the separation of
the judiciary from the executive, the repeal of the Arms Act and the freedom of
speech and expression.
It demanded reduction of revenue, cut in
military expenditure, and more funds for irrigation.