Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947
Q43. List the important political development in mid-1920 in
Ans. Two important developments of the mid-1920s were the
formation of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a Hindu organisation, and
the Communist Party of India. These parties have held very different ideas
about the kind of country India should be. The revolutionary nationalist Bhagat
Singh too was active in this period. The decade closed with the
Congress resolving to fight for Purna Swaraj (complete independence) in 1929
under the presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru. Consequently, “Independence Day”
was observed on 26 January 1930 all over the country.
Q44. How did people participate in non-cooperation movement
Ans. The Non-Cooperation
Movement gained momentum through 1921-22.
Thousands of students left government
controlled schools and colleges.
Many lawyers such as Motilal Nehru, C.R.
Das, C. Rajagopalachari and Asaf Ali gave up their practices.
British titles were surrendered and
People lit public bonfires of foreign
cloth. The imports of foreign cloth fell drastically between 1920 and 1922.
Q45. How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress
different from that of the Moderates?
Ans. By the
1890s many Indians began to raise questions about the political style of the
Congress. In Bengal, Maharashtra and Punjab, leaders such as Bepin Chandra Pal,
Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai were beginning to explore more radical
objectives and methods. They criticised the Moderates for their “politics of
prayers”, and emphasised the importance of self-reliance and constructive work.
They argued that people must rely on their own strength, not on the “good” intentions
of the government; people must fight for swaraj.
Q46. What caused the partition of Bengal in 1905?
What led to the partition of Bengal in 1905?
Why did the British government partition Bengal in 1905?
What was the main cause of the partition of Bengal?
Why did the partition of Bengal take place?
What were the causes for the partition of Bengal?
Ans. In 1905
Viceroy Curzon partitioned Bengal. At that time Bengal was the biggest province
of British India and included Bihar and parts of Orissa. The British argued for
dividing Bengal for reasons of administrative convenience. But clearly, it was
closely tied to the interests of British officials and businessmen. Even so,
instead of removing the non-Bengali areas from the province, the government separated
East Bengal and merged it with Assam. Perhaps the main British motives were to
curtail the influence of Bengali politicians and to split the Bengali people.
Q47. What was khilafat agitation?
What was khilafat movement?
Explain Khilafat movement.
Why was Khilafat movement started?
Ans. In 1920
the British imposed a harsh treaty on the Turkish Sultan or Khalifa. People
were furious about this as they had been about the Jallianwala massacre. Also,
Indian Muslims were keen that the Khalifa be allowed to retain control over
Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile Ottoman Empire. The leaders of the
Khilafat agitation, Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, now wished to initiate a
full-fledged Non-Cooperation Movement. Gandhiji supported their call and urged
the Congress to campaign against “Punjab wrongs” (Jallianwala massacre), the Khilafat
wrong and demand swaraj.
Q48. Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle
against British rule?
Ans. It has
often been said that the Congress in the first twenty years was “moderate” in
its objectives and methods. The congress leaders of this period were called
‘moderates’. The Moderate leaders wanted to develop public awareness about the
unjust nature of British rule. They published newspapers, wrote articles, and
showed how British rule was leading to the economic ruin of the country. They criticised
British rule in their speeches and sent representatives to different parts of
the country to mobilise public opinion. They felt that the British had respect
for the ideals of freedom and justice, and so they would accept the just
demands of Indians.