Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947
Q35. Write a short note on Maulana Azad.
Ans. Azad was
born in Mecca to a Bengali father and an Arab mother. Well-versed in many
languages, Azad was a scholar of Islam and an exponent of the notion of wahadat-i-deen,
the essential oneness of all religions. An active participant in Gandhian
movements and a staunch advocate of Hindu- Muslim unity, he was opposed to
Jinnah’s two-nation theory.
Q36. List the goals of early political organizations formed in
Ans. Their goals were stated as the goals of all the
people of India, not those of any one region, community or class. They worked
with the idea that the people should be sovereign – a modern consciousness and
a key feature of nationalism. In other words, they believed that the Indian people
should be empowered to take decisions regarding their affairs.
Q37. Why did the Congress ministries resign in protest in 1939?
Ans. In September 1939, after two years of Congress
rule in the provinces, the Second World War broke out. Critical of Hitler,
Congress leaders were ready to support the British war effort. But in return
they wanted that India be granted independence after the war. The British
refused to concede the demand. The Congress ministries resigned in protest.
Q38. Why did Gandhiji call off the Non-cooperation Movement?
Gandhi was against violent movements. He abruptly called off the
Non-Cooperation Movement when in February 1922 a crowd of peasants set fire to
a police station in Chauri Chaura. Twentytwo policemen were killed on that day.
The peasants were provoked because the police had fired on their peaceful
Q39. What does 'Punjab wrong' refer to?
Ans. Khan Abdul
Ghaffar Khan was the Pashtun leader from the North West Frontier Province. Also
known as Badshah Khan, he was the founder of the Khudai Khidmatgars, a powerful
non-violent movement among the Pathans of his province. Badshah Khan was
strongly opposed to the Partition of India. He criticised his Congress
colleagues for agreeing to the 1947 division.
Q40. Why was Simon commission sent to India? Why did Indian
What was the main reason of boycott of Simon commission?
Why was Simon Commission sent to India and what were the consequences?
Why did the Simon Commission come to India?
Write a short note on Simon Commission.
Ans. In 1927 the British government in England decided
to send a commission headed by Lord Simon to decide India’s political future.
The Commission had no Indian representative. The decison created an outrage in
India. All political groups decided to boycott the Commission. When the
Commission arrived it was met with demonstrations with banners saying “Simon Go
Q41. What role did Ambabai play in the Indian freedom struggle?
Ans. Ambabai of
Karnataka had been married at age twelve. Widowed at sixteen, she picketed foreign
cloth and liquor shops in Udipi. She was arrested, served a sentence and was
rearrested. Between prison terms she made speeches, taught spinning, and organised
prabhat pheris. Ambabai regarded these as the happiest days of her life because
they gave it a new purpose and commitment.
Q42. Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?
Why did Gandhi start Dandi march?
Ans. Purna Swaraj would never come on its own. It had
to be fought for. In 1930, Gandhiji declared that he would lead a march to
break the salt law. According to this law, the state had a monopoly on the
manufacture and sale of salt. Mahatma Gandhi along with other nationalists
reasoned that it was sinful to tax salt since it is such an essential item of our
food. The Salt March related the general desire of freedom to a specific grievance
shared by everybody, and thus did not divide the rich and the poor.